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Table 1 Mean, standard deviations of patellar movements, and results of repeated measures ANOVA and contrast analysis. Data from 6 French bulldogs (2 without and 4 with Medial Patellar Luxation) in the distal-proximal, latero-medial, and craniocaudal axes

From: Three-dimensional motion of the patella in French bulldogs with and without medial patellar luxation

  MPL % Stance % Swing
TD 50 TO 50
Latero-Medial displacement
 Walk 0 −0.3 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 − 0.6 ± 0.5 0.3 ± 0.2*
1 2.4 ± 1.9 2.1 ± 1.8 2.5 ± 2.4 3.7 ± 1.4*
 Trot 0 0.5 ± 0.3 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.5 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.5
1 2.0 ± 2.0 3.3 ± 1.8 2.4 ± 2.4 3.2 ± 1.3
 Gait n.s. p = 0.003 n.s. n.s.
 MPL n.s. n.s. n.s. p = 0.045
 Gait*MPL n.s. p = 0.017 n.s. p = 0.057
Distal-Proximal displacement
 Walk 0 9.1 ± 0.0* 8.5 ± 1.2* 9.5 ± 1.4 1.2 ± 0.6*
1 2.9 ± 2.6* 2.0 ± 2.9* 3.6 ± 4.2 −4.0 ± 2.2*
 Trot 0 8.6 ± 1.2* 5.7 ± 0.5 8.9 ± 1.3 −0.8 ± 1.6*
1 3.1 ± 2.5* 2.0 ± 2.6 4.2 ± 3.7 −6.0 ± 1.6*
 Gait n.s. p = 0.052 n.s. p = 0.012
 MPL p = 0.037 p = 0.066 n.s. p = 0.024
 Gait*MPL n.s. p = 0.046 n.s. n.s.
Craniocaudal displacement
 Walk 0 4.4 ± 1.5 4.3 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 0.1 3.9 ± 1.3
1 4.5 ± 1.9 4.6 ± 1.3 4.9 ± 0.9 5.2 ± 1.6
 Trot 0 4.3 ± 1.6 3.7 ± 1.2 4.4 ± 0.8 3.9 ± 1.6
1 4.2 ± 2.2 4.6 ± 1.7 5.0 ± 1.7 5.0 ± 1.9
 Gait n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
 MPL n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
 Gait*MPL n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
  1. Displacements are presented in millimeters [mm]. TD: touch-down, TO: toe-off. 0 = Dogs without MPL, 1 = Dogs with MPL. Values displayed in bold indicate that the differences are significant (*p < 0.05). n.s. = non-significant