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Table 7 The effect of inclusion of safflower oil and vitamin C in the broiler chicken diet on the antioxidant defense system, selective immunological parameters and liver, and kidney function tests

From: Changes in the growth, ileal digestibility, intestinal histology, behavior, fatty acid composition of the breast muscles, and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens by dietary inclusion of safflower oil and vitamin C

Item Vitamin C level (mg/kg diet) Safflower oil level (gm/kg diet) Vitamin C × Safflower oil SEM P-value
0 400 0 5 10 0Vit.C+ 0Saff. Oil 0Vit.C + 5 Saff. Oil 0Vit.C+ 10 Saff. Oil 400Vit.C+
0Saff. Oil
400Vit.C+
5 Saff. Oil
400Vit.C+
10Saff. Oil
Vit. C Saff. oil Vit. C x Saff. oil
Antioxidant status
 Serum CAT (U/L) 567.44b 580.00a 571.16 573.50 576.50 563.33 567.00 572.00 581.00 580.00 579.00 3.17 0.04 0.81 0.52
 Serum SOD (U/ml) 25.94b 32.85a 26.60 29.81 31.78 23.40 25.06 29.36 29.80 34.56 34.20 1.49 0.01 0.38 0.14
 Serum GSH (mmol/L) 4.14b 6.57a 4.50 5.36 6.21 3.40 3.96 5.06 5.60 6.76 7.36 0.55 0.02 0.47 0.25
 Muscle MDA (μmol/gm) 4.61 3.60 5.34a 3.70b 3.27b 6.35a 4.01b 3.47b 4.32b 3.40b 3.07b 1.81 0.08 < 0.01 <  0.01
Immunological status
 IgA (ng/ml) 55.80b 66.58a 58.48 60.71 64.38 53.53b 56.73b 57.13ab 63.43ab 64.70ab 71.63a 2.14 0.001 0.43 0.01
 Complement-3 (ng/ml) 134.66b 147.88a 137.50 140.83 145.50 131.00b 135.00a 138.00ab 144.00ab 146.66ab 153.00a 5.23 0.00 0.32 < 0.01
 Cortisone (ng/ml) 9.95 10.07 10.03 10.01 10.00 9.90 10.03 9.93 10.06 10.00 10.16 0.07 0.44 0.98 0.95
Liver function
 ALT (U/L) 12.44 11.77 12.00 11.83 12.50 12.33 12.00 13.00 11.66 11.66 12.00 0.71 0.65 0.93 0.99
 AST (U/L) 34.33 34.33 35.00 33.83 34.16 35.00 34.33 33.66 35.00 33.33 34.66 0.82 1.00 0.85 0.99
Kidney function
 Uric acid (mg/dl) 4.92 5.01 5.41 5.06 4.41 5.23 4.50 5.03 5.60 5.63 3.80 0.36 0.90 0.54 0.73
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.69 0.71 0.71 0.70 0.69 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.72 0.72 0.71 0.01 0.3 0.71 0.88
  1. a, b Means within the same row carrying different superscripts are significantly different at (P < 0.05)