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Table 3 The effect of the inclusion of safflower oil and vitamin C in the broiler chicken diet on the intestine’s morphometric measures

From: Changes in the growth, ileal digestibility, intestinal histology, behavior, fatty acid composition of the breast muscles, and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens by dietary inclusion of safflower oil and vitamin C

Item Vitamin C level (mg/kg diet) Safflower oil level (gm/kg diet) Vitamin C × Safflower oil SEM P-value
0 400 0 5 10 0Vit.C+ 0Saff. Oil 0Vit.C + 5 Saff. Oil 0Vit.C+ 10 Saff. Oil 400Vit.C+
0Saff. Oil
400Vit.C+
5 Saff. Oil
400Vit.C+
10Saff. Oil
  Vit. C Saff. oil Vit. C x Saff. oil
Duodenum
 Villous height 1062.06 1153.6 777.17b 1314.63a 1231.77a 749.15b 1461.17a 975.87b 889.01b 1149.3ab 1487.6a 80.75 0.52 <  0.01 <  0.01
 Villous width 176.40 134.42 85.84 181.84 198.56 15.09b 260.98a 253.14a 140.30ab 111.89ab 143.97ab 26.19 0.36 0.08 <  0.01
 Crypt depth 286.02 241.77 98.61b 482.31a 210.76b 33.64d 616.55a 207.86c 189.42cd 366.49b 213.66bc 45.77 0.58 0.00 <  0.01
 VH/CD 10.12 5.09 13.90a 2.94b 5.97b 22.91a 2.44c 5.01ab 4.89ab 3.44ab 6.93b 1.72 0.09 <  0.01 <  0.01
 Mucosal depth 152.98b 182.71a 92.55b 236.44a 174.56ab 21.52e 301.97a 135.46d 163.34cd 173.75c 213.66b 20.48 0.41 <  0.01 <  0.01
 GCC 121.42a 15.33b 20.13b 25.13b 159.88a 11.75b 140.75b 311.75a 25.60b 8.00b 8.00b 27.22 0.02 0.01 <  0.01
 IELI 46.75a 22.00b 15.25 49.25 38.63 9.00b 77.50a 53.75ab 19.20b 24.67b 23.50ab 7.59 0.05 0.09 <  0.01
Jejunum
 Villous height 880.92 865.20 895.05 843.87 880.27 840.36 797.62 1004.79 937.34 890.90 755.76 38.96 0.82 0.82 0.28
 Villous width 167.13 128.81 57.75b 214.22a 171.94a 10.16c 282.80a 208.44ab 103.01bc 162.95b 135.45b 22.71 0.34 <  0.01 <  0.01
 Crypt depth 198.27 214.03 117.52b 259.83a 241.09a 23.71b 311.45a 259.65a 197.82a 246.38a 222.53a 26.00 0.73 0.01 <  0.01
 VH/CD 14.98a 4.29b 20.95a 3.81b 4.15b 37.46a 2.58b 4.89b 4.43b 5.05b 3.40b 3.13 0.04 <  0.01 <  0.01
 Mucosal depth 163.05b 189.99a 115.49 207.62 206.45 19.63d 279.15a 190.37bc 187.82ab 150.21c 202.53ab 20.89 0.46 0.05 <  0.01
 GCC 220.25a 11.08b 107.38 115.75 123.88 204.50a 221.25a 235.00a 9.00b 12.33b 12.75b 29.32 0.00 0.96 <  0.01
 IELI 82.75a 22.33b 23.75 65.63 68.25 17.00b 109.00a 122.25a 32.40b 16.33b 14.25b 11.40 0.001 0.11 <  0.01
Ileum
 Villous height 629.71 691.81 500.30c 651.94b 830.04a 436.86c 625.73abc 826.55a 578.01bc 692.5ab 833.52a 39.06 0.37 0.00 <  0.01
 Villous width 187.66 176.16 111.90b 207.60ab 226.22a 20.44c 226.46ab 316.08a 188.99b 207.83b 136.37b 23.50 0.78 0.04 <  0.01
 Crypt depth 110.09b 179.74a 94.61b 166.83a 173.30a 33.82c 127.34b 169.10b 175.32ab 190.10a 177.5ab 14.40 <  0.01 0.01 <  0.01
 VH/CD 7.68a 4.02b 8.38a 4.32b 4.84b 12.95a 5.19b 4.89b 3.82b 3.44b 4.80b 0.86 0.01 0.04 <  0.01
 Mucosal depth 152.91 159.03 94.55b 179.00a 194.37a 33.69b 213.80a 211.25a 149.55a 150.21a 177.50a 16.89 0.84 <  0.01 <  0.01
 GCC 219.33 158.92 127.00b 336.50a 103.88b 245.50ab 375.25a 37.25bc 87.00c 263.33a 170.5abc 38.18 0.37 <  0.01 0.01
 IELI 79.58 253.58 363.25 93.63 42.88 7.25b 160.00b 71.50b 578.20a 31.67b 14.25b 50.15 0.16 0.20 0.01
  1. a, b, c Means within the same row carrying different superscripts are significantly different (P <  0.05). VH/CD villous height/crypt depth ratio, GCC Goblet cells count, IELI Intra-epithelium lymphocytic lick cell infiltrations