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Table 2 Hematological parameters in ponies class A, Felin ponies and Polish Koniks compared with so far published reference intervals for various types of horses (according to 1Rossdale & Partners, 2011 [5], 2Weiss & Wardrop, 2010 [7], 3Hinchcliff & Geor, 2013 [1])

From: Variations in haematological and biochemical parameters in healthy ponies

Parametera Ponies class A (n = 73) Felin ponies
(n = 28)
Polish Koniks
(n = 41)
General linear model p-value for the effect of Reference intervals
groups sex agec group & sex interaction “hot-blooded” horses “cold-blooded” horses American Miniature Horses
RBC [T/L] 7.4 ± 1.0
(5.6–11.5)
7.9 ± 1.0
(6.3–10.7)
7.7 ± 0.9
(6.0–10.0)
0.201 0.609 < 0.001
−0.41 (− 0.58, − 0.24)
0.686 8.2 (6.2–10.2)1 5.5–9.52 4.7–9.42
HGB [mmol/L] 6.9 ± 0.9
(4.9–9.3)
7.1 ± 0.7
(6.0–8.4)
7.0 ± 0.6
(5.5–8.4)
0.466 0.883 0.927 0.673 8.4 (6.9–9.9)1 4.96–8.692 5.52–10.122
HCT [l/l] 0.35 ± 0.04 (0.30–0.50) 0.36 ± 0.03 (0.30–0.40) 0.35 ± 0.03 (0.30–0.40) 0.417 0.999 0.645 0.565 0.37 (0.31–0.43)1 0.24–0.442 0.24–0.442
MCV [fL] 46.9 ± 3.4 (36–55) 46.0 ± 3.8 (37–52) 46.0 ± 3.4 (39–51) 0.355 0.172 < 0.001
0.75 (0.61, 0.88)
0.126 46 (40.0–50.0)1   37–582
MCH [fmol] 0.92 ± 0.07 (0.7–1.1) 0.91 ± 0.07 (0.7–1.0) 0.91 ± 0.07 (0.8–1.0) 0.336 0.170 < 0.001
0.66 (0.51, 0.80)
0.809 1.03 (0.94–1.18)1   0.81–1.432
MCHC [mmol/L] 1.97 ± 0.06 (1.8–2.1) 1.97 ± 0.07 (1.8–2.1) 1.98 ± 0.06 (1.8–2.1) 0.788 0.490 0.015
−0.22 (−0.40, −0.04)
0.025 2.38 (2.07–2.40)1   2.17–2.482
WBC [G/L] 7.1 ± 1.2
(4.5–10.7)
6.8 ± 1.4
(4.0–10.4)
7.5 ± 1.1
(5.5–10.3)
0.383 0.667 0.007
−0.24 (− 0.42, − 0.07)
0.197 7.5 (6.0–10.0)1 6.0–12.02
3.9–12.43
5.0–14.972
10 ± 2.53
GRA [G/L] 2.2 ± 0.7
(1.2–4.2)A
1.8 ± 0.5
(1.2–3.8)A
3.0 ± 0.7
(1.7–4.8)B
< 0.001 0.566 0.001
0.25 (0.10, 0.39)
0.774 4.4 (3.4–5.4)1 2.6–7.23 3.7 ± 0.83
LYM [G/L] 4.0 ± 1.0
(2.3–8.4)A
4.3 ± 1.1
(1.9–6.7)A
3.6 ± 0.9
(2.0–5.6)B
< 0.001 0.704 < 0.001
−0.56 (− 0.71, − 0.41)
0.177 2.6 (2.0–3.2)1 0.89–3.64 5.9 ± 0.93
MON [G/L] 0.9 ± 0.3
(0.3–1.5)
0.8 ± 0.2
(0.4–1.2)
0.9 ± 0.2
(0.6–1.5)
0.037b 0.426 < 0.001
0.36 (0.19, 0.52)
0.824 0.3 (0.2–0.4)1 0–0.624 0.04 ± 0.083
PLT [G/L] 277, 196–364 (95–900)A 435, 314–701 (181–900)B 403, 358–476 (116–900)B < 0.001 0.981 0.453 0.452 156 (100–250)1   
  1. RBC Number of red blood cells, HGB Haemoglobin concentration, HCT Haematocrit, MCV Mean corpuscular volume, MCH Mean corpuscular haemoglobin, MCHC Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, WBC Number of white blood cells, GRA Number of granulocytes, LYM Number of lymphocytes, MON Number of monocytes, PLT Number of platelets
  2. a presented as arithmetic mean ± SD and range in parenthesis except for PLT which was non-normally distributed and presented as the median, interquartile range (IQR) and range in parenthesis
  3. b despite significant result of the omnibus test, pairwise comparisons were insignificant
  4. c standardized regression coefficient with 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) presented if significant
  5. A-C groups marked by different capital letters differ significantly in between-group pairwise comparisons at α = 0.05