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Table 1 Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium in chickens and birds in selected area of Peninsular Malaysia

From: Isolation of Mycobacterium avium and other nontuberculous mycobacteria in chickens and captive birds in peninsular Malaysia

Farm ID Total samples (n) Culture on L-J Direct PCR (IS901)
Samples for culture (n) Replicates (n) Culture positive (%) Identification of isolates Contaminated cultures (replicate %) Species of birds Samples for PCR (n) Positive (%) Species of birds
F1* 4 4 12 0   33.3%   4 0  
F2* 29 29 87 S0   0%   8 0  
F3* 12 12 36 0   5.6%   5 0  
F4* 12 12 36 0   100%   11 1 (9.0) Gallus domesticus
F5* 23 23 69 0   14.5%   16 0  
F6* 4 4 12 2 (50) M. terrae, M. engbaekii 66.7% Gallus domesticus 4 0  
F7* 16 16 48 2 (12.5) Mycobacterium spp. (2 isolates)a 45.8% Gallus domesticus 10 0  
F8# 11 11 33 0   69.7%   11 0  
F9# 11 11 33 0   57.6%   11 0  
F10# 35 35 105 0   30.5%   35 0  
F11# 43 43 129 0   23.3%   43 0  
F12҂ 5 5 15 1 (20) M. avium 20.0% Pelecanus onocrotalus 2 0  
F13҂ 12 12 36 0   11.1%   11 2 (18.2) Ara spp. and Cacatua spp.
F14҂ 15 15 45 0   33.3%   11 2 (20) Ara spp. and Anthracoceros malayanus
F15҂ 21 20 60 0   1.7%   21 1 (4.7) Cacatua spp.
F16҂ 8 8 24 0   0%   0 0  
F17҂ 3 2 6 0   33.3%   3 0  
F18҂ 11 11 33 0   30.3%   11 0  
F19҂ 25 23 69 1 (4,3) Mycobacterium spp. (1)b 21.7% Phigys solitaries 25 0  
Total 300 296 888 6 (2.0)   248/888 (27.9%)   242 6 (2.5)  
  1. *Village chickens, #Layer chickens and ҂captive exotic birds. No correlation was seen among the positive samples by culture and direct PCR. PCR was specific to M. avium (IS901). Z-N stain of all concentrated avian fecal samples were negative. a sequencing was not performed for these isolates. b this isolate was positive for Z-N staining and PCR was not performed