Skip to main content

Table 2 Doppler-derived echocardiographic parameters in geriatric rhesus macaques

From: Echocardiographic reference intervals with allometric scaling of 823 clinically healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

  Reference Intervals
Echo parameters Mean SD Range Lower limit Upper limit
Ao Vmax (m/sec) 1.12 0.21 0.53–1.77 0.6 1.64
A wave (m/sec) 0.57 0.14 0.19–1.0 0.3 0.84
E wave (m/sec) 0.85 0.18 0.45–1.5 0.5 1.2
E/A 1.54 0.40 0.91–3.67 0.75 2.33
LV IVRT (sec) 55.1 9.09 30–85 37.3 72.9
E: LV IVRT 0.02 0.0059 0.01–0.04 0.004 0.027
E’ wave medial (m/sec) 0.071 0.014 0.037–0.12 0.042 0.099
A’ wave medial (m/sec) 0.052 0.021 0.028–0.52 0.012 0.093
E’/A’ medial 1.41 0.32 0.9–2.74 0.78 2.0
E/E’ medial 12.4 3.0 0.62–23.8 6.52 18.28
E’ wave lateral (m/sec) 0.1 0.022 0.045–0.16 0.06 0.15
A’ wave lateral (m/sec) 0.06 0.016 0.028–0.06 0.029 0.092
E’/A’ lateral 1.77 0.48 0.96–3.87 0.83 2.71
E/E’ lateral 8.7 2.24 4.49–19.7 4.3 13.1
PV Vmax (m/s) 1.021 0.17 0.61–1.87 0.67 1.65
PV ET (sec) 216.98 25.71 150–300 133.97 288.52
PV AT (sec) 77.59 15.86 21–132 29.47 123.02
PV AT/ET 0.36 0.066 0.2–0.57 0.17 0.58
RV S′ Vmax (m/s) 0.096 0.024 0.04–0.17 0.04 0.17
  1. A wave, passive filling velocity; A’ wave, late diastolic mitral annulus motion; E wave, atrial contraction velocity; E’ wave, early diastolic mitral annulus motion: LV IVRT; left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time; PVAT, pulmonary valve acceleration time; PVET, pulmonary valve ejection time; Ao Vmax, peak velocity for aortic flow; PV Vmax, peak velocity for pulmonary flow; RV S′ Vmax, tricuspid peak systolic annular velocity