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Table 1 Parity, body condition score (BCS), investigation stages and time of feedings of the study groups

From: 24-h variations of blood serum metabolites in high yielding dairy cows and calves

Groups Parity
Mean ± SE (minimum-maximum)
BCS
Mean ± SE (minimum-maximum)
Investigation stages Time of feedings
Dry cows 4.2 ± 0.7 (1–6) 3.1 ± 0.5 (2.5–3.5) From 2 to 8 weeks’ AP At 09:30
Close-up 3.1 ± 0.8 (0–4) 3.7 ± 0.3 (3–4) From 14 to 0 days’ AP At 10:00
Fresh-lactation 3.8 ± 0.7 (1–6) 3.4 ± 0.6 (3–3.75) From 1 to 3 days’ PP At 09:00
Early-lactation 4.1 ± 0.4 (1–6) 3.1 ± 0.4 (2.5–3.5) From 7 to 30 days’ PP At 09:00
Mid-lactation 3.7 ± 0.3 (2–5) 2.8 ± 0.3 (2.25–3.25) From 31 to 150 days’ PP with milk production of ≥28 Kg/day At 08:00 and 13:00
Late-lactation 4.8 ± 0.6 (2–8) 2.6 ± 0.5 (2–3) From 174 to 375 days’ PP with milk production of < 28 kg/day At 07:00
Newborn calves NA NA From 1 to 3 days’ PN At 03:00 and 15:00
Suckling calves NA NA From 9 to 12 days’ PN At 03:00 and 15:00
  1. NA Not applicable, AP Antepartum, PP Postpartum, PN Postnatal