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Table 2 Frequency distributions of the clinical findings in healthy control cows, cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP) and cows with type 1 (U1), type 2 (U2), type 3 (U3), type 4 (U4) or type 5 (U5) abomasal ulcer

From: Diagnostic reliability of clinical signs in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and abomasal ulcers

Variable Classification Controls TRP U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 Chi2
Rectal temperature 38.6–39.0 °C (normal range)
≤ 38.5 or >  39.0 °C
103 (57%)2,4,5,6
79 (43%)
160 (32%)1
343 (68%)
41 (44%)6
52 (56%)
56 (38%)1,6
89 (61%)
14 (23%)1
46 (77%)
16 (18%)1,3,4
71 (82%)
5 (39%)
8 (62%)
79
≤ 38.5 °C (decreased) 21 (11%)2,4,6 126 (25%)1 21 (23%) 46 (32%)1 16 (27%) 30 (35%)1 2 (15%)  
>  38.5 °C 161 (89%) 377 (75%) 72 (77%) 99 (68%) 44 (73%) 57 (66%) 11 (85%) 26
≤ 38.0 °C (decreased) 2 (1%)3,4,6,7 34 (7%)4,6 8 (9%)1 22 (15%)1, 2 4 (7%) 16 (18%)1, 2 2 (15%)1  
>  38.0 °C 180 (99%) 469 (93%) 85 (91%) 123 (85%) 56 (93%) 71 (82%) 11 (85%) 36
>  39.0 °C (increased) 58 (32%) 217 (43%) 31 (33%) 43 (30%) 30 (50%) 41 (47%) 6 (46%)  
≤ 39.0 °C 124 (68%) 286 (57%) 62 (67%) 102 (70%) 30 (50%) 46 (53%) 7 (54%) 20
>  39.5 °C (increased) 11 (6%)6 71 (14%)4 9 (10%) 6 (4%)2,6 11 (18%)4 20 (23%)1,4 0 (0%)  
≤ 39.5 °C 171 (94%) 432 (86%) 84 (90%) 139 (96%) 49 (82%) 67 (77%) 13 (100%) 30
>  40.0 °C (increased) 1 (1%) 26 (5%) 3 (3%) 2 (1%) 6 (10%) 3 (3%) 0 (0%)  
≤ 40.0 °C 181 (99%) 477 (95%) 90 (97%) 143 (99%) 54 (90%) 84 (97%) 13 (100%) 14
Heart rate 60–80 bmp (normal range)
<  60 or >  80/min
139 (76%)3,4,5,6
43 (24%)
349 (70%)3,4,5,6
153 (30%)
45 (48%)1,2,4
49 (52%)
15 (10%)1,2,3,5,6,7
130 (90%)
27 (45%)1,2,4
33 (55%)
26 (30%)1,2,4
61 (70%)
8 (57%)4
6 (43%)
220
>  80/min (increased) 28 (15%)3,4,5,6 130 (26%)3,4,5,6 46 (49%)1,2,4 130 (90%)1,2,3,5,6,7 33 (55%)1,2,4 59 (68%)1,2,4 5 (36%)4  
≤ 80/min 154 (85%) 372 (74%) 48 (51%) 15 (10%) 27 (45%) 28 (32%) 9 (64%) 274
> 100/min (increased) 2 (1%)3,4,5,6,7 22 (4%)3,4,5,6,7 23 (24%)1,2,4,7 90 (62%)1,2,3,5,6 10 (17%)1,2,4,6,7 36 (41%)1,2,4,5,7 12 (86%)1,2,3,5,6  
≤ 100/min 180 (99%) 480 (96%) 71 (75%) 55 (38%) 50 (83%) 51 (59%) 2 (14%) 368
>  120/min (increased) 1 (1%)3,4,6 7 (1%)3,4,6 7 (7%)1,2,4 37 (26%)1,2,3,5 1 (2%)4 13 (15%)1,2 1 (7%)  
≤ 120/min. 181 (99%) 495 (99%) 87 (93%) 108 (74%) 59 (98%) 74 (85%) 13 (93%) 137
Respiratory rate 15–35 breaths/min (normal range)
<  15 or >  35/min
155 (85%)4,5,6
27 (15%)
380 (76%)
121 (24%)
67 (71%)
27 (29%)
92 (64%)1
52 (36%)
38 (63%)1
22 (37%)
53 (62%)1
33 (38%)
9 (64%)
5 (36%)
31
>  35/min (increased) 27 (15%)2,3,4,5,6,7 117 (23%)1,4,5,6 27 (29%)1 52 (36%)1,2 22 (37%)1,2 33 (38%)1,2 5 (36%)1  
≤ 35/min 155 (85%) 384 (77%) 67 (71%) 92 (64%) 38 (63%) 53 (62%) 9 (64%) 33
>  45/min (increased) 4 (2%)3,4,5,6,7 21 (4%)3,4,5,6,7 13 (14%)1,2,7 20 (14%)1,2,7 9 (15%)1,2,7 17 (20%)1,2,7 14 (100%)1,2,3,4,5,6  
≤ 45/min 178 (98%) 480 (96%) 81 (86%) 124 (86%) 51 (85%) 69 (80%) 0 (0%) 186
> 55/min (increased) 1 (1%)3,4,7 12 (2%)3,4,7 9 (10%)1,2 12 (8%)1,2 4 (7%) 14 (16%)1,2 0  
≤ 55/min 181 (99%) 489 (98%) 85 (90%) 132 (92%) 56 (93%) 72 (84%) 0 47
Demeanour abnormal 2 (1%)2,3,4,5,6,7 438 (87%)1,4,6 88 (94%)1,6 141 (98%)1,2 57 (95%)1,6 87 (100%)1,2,3,5,7 13 (93%)1,6  
normal 180 (99%) 65 (13%) 6 (6%) 4 (2%) 3 (5%) 0 (0%) 1 (7%) 690
Signs of colic yes 0 (0%)3,4,6,7 16 (3%)3,4,6 20 (21%)1,2,5 15 (10%)1.2 1 (2%)3 9 (10%)1,2 2 (14%)1  
no 182 (100%) 487 (97%) 74 (79%) 130 (90%) 59 (98%) 78 (90%) 12 (86%) 71
Arched back yes 1 (0.5%)2,3,5,6,7 91 (18%)1,4 11 (12%)1 5 (3%)2,6,7 8 (13%)1 24 (28%)1,4 5 (36%)1,4  
no 181 (99%) 412 (82%) 83 (88%) 140 (97%) 52 (87%) 63 (72%) 9 (64%) 69
Abdominal guarding yes
no
36 (20%)2,3,4,5,6,7
146 (80%)
273 (54%)1,6,7
228 (46%)
53 (59%)1,6
37 (41%)
61 (43%)1,6,7
81 (57%)
36 (61%)1
23 (39%)
68 (81%)1,2,3,4
16 (19%)
14 (100%)1,2,4
0 (0%)
125
Bruxism yes 1 (0.5%)2,3,4,5,6,7 103 (21%)1 14 (15%)1 18 (12%)1 11 (18%)1 22 (25%)1 3 (21%)1  
no 181 (99.5%) 400 (79%) 80 (85%) 127 (88%) 49 (82%) 65 (75%) 11 (79%) 48
Scleral vessels congested 42 (29%)2,3,5,6,7 393 (79%)1,4 83 (89%)1,4 51 (35%)2,3,5,6,7 43 (73%)1,4 66 (77%)1,4 11 (79%)1,4  
not congested 104 (71%) 107 (21%) 10 (11%) 94 (65%) 16 (27%) 20 (23%) 3 (21%) 216
Mucous membranes pale 5 (3%)4,6 37 (7%)4,6 9 (10%)4 100 (69%)1,2,3,5,6,7 2 (3%)4,6 23 (27%)1,2,4,5 2 (14%)4  
not pale 177 (97%) 458 (93%) 83 (90%) 45 (31%) 58 (97%) 62 (73%) 12 (86%) 360
Rumen motility reduced or absent 24 (13%)2,3,4,5,6,7 354 (73%)1,4,5,6 54 (90%)1 131 (92%)1,2 53 (93%)1,2 85 (93%)1,2 13 (93%)1  
normal 158 (87%) 133 (27%) 6 (10%) 12 (8%) 4 (7%) 1 (7%) 1 (7%) 372
absent (rumen atony) 0 (0%)2,3,4,5,6,7 29 (6%)1,3,4,5,6,7 50 (56%)1,2,6 64 (45%)1,2 28 (49%)1,2 23 (27%)1,2,3 5 (36%)1,2  
reduced or normal 182 (100%) 458 (94%) 40 (44%) 79 (55%) 29 (51%) 63 (73%) 9 (64%) 278
Foreign body tests at least one test positive 81 (44%)2,3 296 (60%)1,3,4 19 (24%)1,2,6 36 (28%)2,6 26 (45%) 44 (58%)3,4 5 (39%)  
all foreign body tests negative 101 (56%) 199 (40%) 61 (76%) 91 (72%) 32 (55%) 32 (42%) 8 (61%) 70
PSA/BSA on the right side PSA and/or BSA positive 19 (10%)3,4,5,6,7 87 (17%)3,4,5,6,7 50 (53%)1,2,4 47 (33%)1,2,3 28 (47%)1,2 44 (51%)1,2 9 (64%)1,2  
PSA and BSA negative 163 (90%) 416 (83%) 44 (47%) 96 (67%) 32 (53%) 43 (49%) 5 (36%) 133
Faecal colour dark or black 0 (0%)3,4,5,6,7 0 (0%)3,4,5,6,7 14 (18%)1,2,4 115 (80%)1,2,3,5,6,7 6 (11%)1,2,4 12 (16%)1,2,4 3 (21%)1,2,4  
normal 182 (100%) 486 (100%) 64 (82%) 28 (20%) 47 (89%) 63 (84%) 11 (79%) 615
  1. PSA Percussion and simultaneous auscultation, BSA Ballottement and simultaneous auscultation, NR Not recorded, NA Not applicable
  2. 1 Different from controls, P < 0.01
  3. 2 Different from TRP, P < 0.01
  4. 3 Different from U1, P < 0.01
  5. 4 Different from U2, P < 0.01
  6. 5 Different from U3, P < 0.01
  7. 6 Different from U4, P < 0.01
  8. 7 Different from U5 P < 0.01