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Table 1 Clinical signs, analytical findings, cytology, serology, and rtPCR results recorded in the case of the two Eurasian otters

From: Clinical leishmaniosis in a captive Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Spain: a case report

Animal description Male, 4 years Female, 3 years (negative control)
Dates of screening August 2019 (diagnosis) November 2019
(treatment)
November 2019
Clinical signs Bilateral epistaxis, anorexia, apathy, weight loss, bilateral nephropathy with hydronephrosis, mesenteric lymphadenomegaly, ascites Light hydronephrosis No signs
CBC (reference values)a
 White blood cells (3.1–19.2 × 103/mm3) 4.5 3 4.6
 Platelets (178–777 × 103/mm3) 156 296 nd
BP (reference values)
 Total proteins (6–7.7 g/dL)a 10.4 12.2 6.7
 Albumin (1.25–3.6 g/dL)a 2.4 2.1 3.6
 Globulin (2.7–4.8 g/dL)a 8 10 3.1
 PON-1 (3–4.3 IU/mL)b 2.1 2.5 6.5
 Haptoglobin (<  3 g/L)b 3.3 1.4 0.1
 CRP (<  12 μg/mL)b 3.7 4 6.7
 Ferritin (60–190 μg/L)b 2820 266 111
 Blood urea nitrogen (17.3–68.1 mg/dL)a 37.1 nd nd
 Serum creatinine (0.7–1 mg/dL)a 0.7 nd nd
Urynalisis (reference values)b
 Urine protein/creatinine (UPC) ratio (<  0.2) 3 nd nd
 Urine osmolarity (> 500 mOsm/L) 363 nd nd
 Urine specific gravity (1.015–1.045) 1.012 nd nd
Serology results by TR-IFMA (<  22 UFL) 266.6 229.4 4.84
Serology results by ELISA (<  1.1 S/P ratio) 4.9 nd 0.3
Spleen cytology (microscopy) Presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes Presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes nd
RtPCR results (parasites/ng DNA × 103)
 Peripheral blood 13.89 nd NAC
 Bone marrow 222.81 nd nd
  1. Data of analytes over or under the reference values, and positive tests, are shown in bold. CBC Complete blood count; aHematological and biochemical Eurasian otter reference values [8]; BP Biochemical profile; bInterlab-UMU biochemical canine reference values; PON-1 Paraoxonase-1; CRP C-reactive protein; TR-IFMA Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay; UFL Units of fluorometry for Leishmania; ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; S/P ratio Sample-to-positive ratio; rtPCR Real-time polymerase chain reaction; nd Not determined; NAC No amplification curve