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Table 1 Mean (±SEM) and reference ranges of physiological parameters in Bactrian camels at high altitude

From: Morphometric, haematological and physio-biochemical characterization of Bactrian (Camelus bactrianus) camel at high altitude

S. No. Physiological Parameters Young age
(2–4 years)
Adult age
(5–10 years)
Old age
(11–20 years)
Reference range at low altitudea Reference range at high altitudeb
1 Heart Rate (beats/min) 37.6 ± 0.88 35 ± 0.44 34 ± 1.67 30.0–45.0 30.0–40.0
2 Respiration Rate (beats/min) 12.6 ± 1.33 11.8 ± 0.16 11.6 ± 0.97 5.0–12.0 8.0–14.0
3 Body Temperature (°C) 29.6 ± 1.2 31 ± 0.68 28.2 ± 1.11 NR 24.0–32.0
4 Rectal Temperature (°C) 32.6 ± 0.66 34.8 ± 0.40 35.2 ± 1.31 32.0–35.0 32.0–38.0
  1. aReference ranges taken from Elitok and Cirak, (2018) b Reference range calculated based on present study; NR Not Reported; SEM Standard Error Mean