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Table 2 Metabolites’ concentrations (mmol/L), expressed as mean ± standard deviation, quantified by 1H-NMR in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples of control group (Group C) and asthma group (Group A). 95% CI for each group is indicated in brackets. P values are indicated for each metabolite, statistical significances (*) are in bold letters

From: Respiratory metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can differentiate horses affected by severe equine asthma from healthy horses

Metabolites Group C (n = 6) Group A (n = 6) P values
Formate 2.38E-03 ± 4.63E-04 (2.01E-03 - 2.75E-03) 2.30E-03 ± 6.56E-04 (1.77E-03 - 2.82E-03) 0.463
Methanol* 1.13E-02 ± 3.07E-03 (8.87E-03 - 1.38E-02) 1.84E-02 ± 8.39E-03 (1.17E-02 - 2.51E-02) 0.046
Trimethylamine 1.46E-04 ± 7.13E-05 (8.90E-05 - 2.03E-04) 1.78E-04 ± 1.35E-04 (6.97E-05 - 2.85E-04) 0.189
Acetone 2.72E-03 ± 1.27E-03 (1.70E-03 - 3.74E-03) 2.99E-03 ± 9.31E-04 (2.25E-03 - 3.74E-03) 0.510
Acetate 3.38E-03 ± 7.02E-04 (2.82E-03 - 3.94E-03) 2.79E-03 ± 6.01E-04 (2.31E-03 - 3.27E-03) 0.742
Lactate 9.50E-03 ± 8.40E-03 (2.78E-03 - 1.62E-02) 5.34E-03 ± 2.48E-03 (3.35E-03 - 7.33E-03) 0.018
Ethanol* 1.31E-02 ± 9.32E-03 (5.69E-03 - 2.06E-02) 3.60E-02 ± 5.68E-02 (0–8.15E-02) 0.001