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Table 1 Comparative VetMAX™ PCR Kit test results for tissue and respiratory samples collected from African buffaloes (n = 48), white rhinoceros (n = 10) and African elephants (n = 13) with known mycobacterial culture results

From: The VetMAX™ M. tuberculosis complex PCR kit detects MTBC DNA in antemortem and postmortem samples from white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer)

Species Sample type No of samples Mycobacterial culture sample results VetMax PCR Posb/ MTBC culture Pos samples VetMax PCR Neg/ MTBC culture Neg samples
MTBC culture positive (MTBC isolate)a MTBC culture negative
African buffaloesc Lymph nodes(LNs) n = 47 25 (M. bovis) 22 25/25 10/22
Lung n = 1 1 (M. bovis) n.a 1/1 n.a
White rhinocerosd LNs n = 23 20 (M. bovis) 3 8/20 1/3
Lung n = 6 6 (M. bovis) n.a 3/6 n.a
BALF n = 5 n.a 5 n.a 5/5
African elephantse LNs n = 4 1 (M. bovis) 3 1/1 0/3
Lung n = 2 1 (M. tuberculosis) 1 1/1 0/1
BALF n = 13 2 (M. tuberculosis) 11 2/2 11/11
TW n = 12 1 (M. tuberculosis) 11 1/1 11/11
  1. aConfirmed MTBC culture positive: M. bovis- and M. tuberculosis-positive by mycobacterial culture and strain typing [19]
  2. bVetMAX PCR Kit is a real-time PCR assay that targets the IS6110 insertion element sequence present in the genome of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. Microti, M. canetti, M. caprea and M. pinnipedii
  3. cAll test-positive African buffaloes were euthanized on either or the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test result and an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay result
  4. dAfrican rhinoceros BALF samples tested were collected from four individual animals suspected of M. bovis infection, but not confirmed. One animal had a duplicate BALF sample
  5. eAfrican elephant PCR positive/ culture positive BALFs, TW and lung sample were collected from one elephant confirmed to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one PCR positive/ culture positive LN samples were collected from one M. bovis confirmed elephant