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Table 1 Number of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) presenting gross pathological and histological findings listed by system and prevalence (P)

From: Postmortem findings in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) caught in a drift gillnet

System Macroscopic findings (n = 20) P Microscopic findings (n = 20) P
Cardiovascular System Cardiac congestion 30% (6) Cardiac congestion 15% (3)
Cardiomegaly 5% (1)   
Dilated atria 5% (1)   
Jugular vein engorgement (bilateral) 50% (10)   
Respiratory System Pulmonary edema 100% (20) Pneumonia 55% (11)
Pulmonary congestion 100% (20) - Mild to moderate acute diffuse granulocytic pneumonia 35% (7)
Pulmonary hemorrhage 20% (4) - Acute diffuse pneumonia 20% (4)
Tracheal hemorrhage 5% (1) Mild to moderate pulmonary congestion 40% (8)
Tracheal blood cloth 5% (1) Mild to moderate pulmonary edema 35% (7)
Frothy fluid in the trachea 5% (1) Mild tracheal congestion 5% (1)
   Mild to moderate tracheal edema 5% (1)
   Mild segmented mononuclear tracheitis 5% (1)
   Distension of the tracheal lymphoid tissue 5% (1)
   Mild extension of the tracheal lamina propria 5% (1)
Gastrointestinal Tract Parasitosis (Nematode, Contracaecum pelagicum) 75% (15) Acute diffuse mild esophagitis 15% (3)
Parasitosis (Trematode, Cardiocephaloides physalis) 55% (11) Mild to moderate multifocal coalescent esophageal microabscesses 10% (2)
Parasitosis (Cestode, Tetrabothrius lutzi) 40% (8) Mild enteric congestion 5% (1)
Intestinal congestion 25% (5) Mild to moderate acute diffuse granulocytic proventricular infiltrate 5% (1)
Stomach congestion 15% (3) Mild to moderate acute diffuse proventriculitis 5% (1)
Marine debris 10% (2) Proventricular ulcer 5% (1)
   Mild to moderate acute diffuse ventricular infiltrate 5% (1)
   Parasitic enteritis 65% (13)
   Parasitic typhlitis 20% (4)
   Coccidiosis 5% (1)
Hepatobiliary System Hepatomegaly 20% (4) Hepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis 35% (7)
Hepatic congestion 5% (1) Mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis 25% (5)
   Mild mixed multifocal hepatitis 5% (1)
   Mild predominantly mononuclear periportal hepatitis with rare granulocytes 5% (1)
   Mild perivascular lymphocytic hepatitis 5% (1)
   Granulocytic hepatitis 5% (1)
   Mild to moderate diffuse hepatic congestion 15% (3)
   Hepatic duct hyperplasia 10% (2)
   Hepatic hemosiderosis 10% (2)
   Mild to moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatic degeneration 5% (1)
Central Nervous System Brain congestion 100% (20) Cerebral congestion 95% (19)
Meningeal congestion 25% (5)   
Skull cap congestion 10% (2)   
Lymphoid System Splenomegaly 55% (11) Mild to moderate lymphoid splenic hyperplasia 55% (11)
Splenic congestion 35% (7) Mild to moderate splenic histiocytosis 35% (7)
Congestion of the bursa of Fabricius 5% (1) Mild to moderate acute diffuse splenitis 35% (7)
   Mild splenic congestion 10% (2)
   Mild splenic lymphocytolysis 10% (2)
   Moderate splenic lymphoid proliferation 5% (1)
   Hyperplasia of the splenic germinative centre with arteriole displacement 5% (1)
   Necrosis of the splenic germinative centre 5% (1)
Genitourinary System Renal congestion 20% (4) Renal congestion 40% (8)
   Interstitial nephritis 10% (2)
   Histiocytic lymphoplasmacytic multifocal nephritis 5% (1)
Musculoskeletal System Bilateral scapulohumeral joint edema 5% (1) NAa NA
Integumentary System Abrasion, bruising, and local erythema and edema of the wings 50% (10/20) NAa  
Miscellaneous findings Generalized hemoglobin impregnation 3/20 Pancreatic congestion 10% (2)
Caseous material in the mesentery 5% (1) Harderian gland congestion 5% (1)
   Thyroid congestion 5% (1)
   Parathyroid congestion 5% (1)
  1. aNA: not available
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