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Table 1 Association between HIF-1α or VEGF and clinical/pathological factors by using TMAs

From: Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in feline mammary gland carcinomas: association with pathological characteristics and clinical outcomes

FactorsNo. of patientsHIF-1αVEGF
Overexpressionp valueOverexpressionp value
Age
  < 12 y3219ns24ns
  ≥ 12 y403132
Reproductive status
 Intact female2413ns18ns
 Spayed female453436
 Intact male111
 Castrated male221
Clinical stage
 I + II3420ns20ns
 III + IV352834
Pattern
 Tubulopapillary5237ns410.021*
 Solid10710
 Cribriform642
 Invasive micropapillary423
Tubule formation
 >75%3927ns28ns
 10–75%221719
 <10%1169
Mitotic count
  ≤ 203625ns29ns
  > 203625 27 
Necrosis
  ≤ 25%3221ns26ns
  > 25%402930
Stromal response
 Mild116ns60.048*
 Peritumoral12108
 Intratumoral493442
Squamous differentiation
  ≤ 5%2717ns150.001*
  > 5%443441
Lymphovascular invasion
 Absent3717ns240.007*
 Present353132
Lymph node metastases
 Absent106ns6ns
 Present161014
EE grading system
 Grade 11813ns14ns
 Grade 2433131
 Grade 311611
REE grading system
 Grade 14029ns27ns
 Grade 2281925
 Grade 3424
Novel grading system
 Grade 154ns3ns
 Grade 2302320
 Grade 3372333
  1. *, p < 0.05
  2. ns Not significant