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Table 3 Percentages of the most abundant taxa (mean ± SEM) found in all dietary groups

From: Effects of hydrolyzed fish protein and autolyzed yeast as substitutes of fishmeal in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diet, on fish intestinal microbiome

Phylum Ctrl FPH AY p-value
Firmicutes 58.6 ± 2.9 54.6 ± 4.3 41.5 ± 2.9  
Proteobacteria 39.7 ± 3.1 41.5 ± 4.5 49.4 ± 2.9  
Spirochaetes 1.1 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 2.8 2.5 ± 1.2  
Class
Bacilli 73.5 ± 3.9 66.2 ± 6.2 72.2 ± 3.9  
Clostridia 1.0 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 0.6 2.5 ± 0.7  
Alphaproteobacteria 1.2 ± 0.3b 3.6 ± 1.8b 1.8 ± 0.6a *
Gammaproteobacteria 21.9 ± 4.1 23.3 ± 6.0 17.1 ± 4.5  
Brevinematae 1.5 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 3.3 4.0 ± 1.8  
Order
Bacillales 1.9 ± 0.2b 2.3 ± 0.4ab 3.7 ± 0.5a **
Lactobacillales 71.5 ± 3.9 63.9 ± 6.1 68.4 ± 3.6  
Clostridiales < 1.0b 2.0 ± 0.6ab 2.5 ± 0.6a *
Rhodobacterales < 1.0 3.3 ± 1.7 1.3 ± 0.6  
Alteromonadales 2.0 ± 0.5a < 1.0b 1.1 ± 0.2a ***
nterobacteriales 0.6 ± 0.2ab < 1.0b 1.1 ± 0.2a ***
Pseudomonadales 0.8 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2  
Vibrionales 18.2 ± 4.1 21.9 ± 6.1 13.6 ± 4.6  
Brevinematales 1.4 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 3.2 3.9 ± 1.2  
Family
Prevotellaceae < 0.5b n.d. 0.8 ± 0.3a ***
Bacillaceae 1.1 ± 0.2b 1.2 ± 0.4b 2.8 ± 0.5a **
Lactobacillales 70.9 ± 3.9 63.6 ± 6.1 67.8 ± 3.7  
Clostridiaceae 0.5 ± 0.0 1.6 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.5  
Veillonellaceae n.d. n.d. 1.2 ± 0.2 ***
Rhodobacteriaceae 0.7 ± 0.3 3.30 ± 1.8 1.3 ± 0.6  
Shewanellaceae 2.0 ± 0.5a < 1.0b 1.1 ± 0.2a ***
Enterobacteriaceae 0.6 ± 0.2ab < 1.0b 1.1 ± 0.2a ***
Pseudomonadaceae 0.7 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2  
Pseudoalteromonadaceae 1.0 ± 0.2a 1.1 ± 1.0b < 0.5b **
Vibrionaceae 17.2 ± 4.1 20.8 ± 5.9 13.5 ± 4.6  
Brevinemataceaeae 1.4 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 3.2 4.0 ± 1.8  
Genus
Prevotella n.d. n.d. 0.8 ± 0.3 ***
Bacillus 0.9 ± 0.2b 1.5 ± 0.4b 2.3 ± 0.6a **
Staphylococcus < 0.5 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.2  
Lactobacillus 70.9 ± 3.9 63.6 ± 6.1 67.8 ± 3.7  
Clostridium < 0.5 1.3 ± 0.6 0.8 ± 0.5  
Megasphaera n.d. n.d. 1.2 ± 0.3a ***
Comamonas < 0.5 < 0.5 0.6 ± 0.2  
Shewanella 2.0 ± 0.5a < 0.5b 1.1 ± 0.3a ***
Erwinia < 0.5ab < 0.5b 0.6 ± 0.2a **
Pseudomonas 0.7 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.3  
Pseudoalteromonas 0.9 ± 0.2a < 0.5b < 0.5b ***
Photobacterium 12.4 ± 4.2 20.2 ± 5.8 10.9 ± 4.4  
Vibrio 4.7 ± 1.3a 0.5 ± 0.2b 2.5 ± 0.7a ***
  1. “n.d.” means not detected. Statistical significance: (*) p < 0.05; (**) p < 0.01; (***) p < 0.001
  2. Different superscript letters indicate statistically significant differences (Dunn’s post hoc test, p < 0.05)