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Table 4 Chiari malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) severity scoring strategy, as proposed by the British Veterinary Association (BVA) for use in stratifying dogs with CM/SM [13]

From: Mechanical quantitative sensory testing in cavalier King Charles spaniels with and without syringomyelia

GradeCM
CM0Cerebellum is rounded with CSF between vermis and foramen magnum
CM1Indentation of cerebellum by supraoccipital bone; CSF present between vermis and foramen magnum
CM2Cerebellar vermis is impacted into or through the foramen magnum
SM0No syrinx or central canal dilation
SM1Central canal dilation with a diameter < 2 mm
SM2Central canal dilation > 2 mm, separate syrinx, or pre-syrinx with or without central canal dilation