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Table 1 Summary of vaccination protocols and tests (bacteriology, histology and immunology)

From: Detection of live M. bovis BCG in tissues and IFN-γ responses in European badgers (Meles meles) vaccinated by oropharyngeal instillation or directly in the ileum

  Groups
Group A Group B Group C Group D
Number of animals 6 6 4 4
Study 1 2
Vaccine delivery Intellicap capsule Oropharyngeal Oropharyngeal Oropharyngeal
Lipid added No HPO Cocoa Butter
Mucosal target Intestine Oral Oral Oral
Volume of vaccine Ileum 300 μl    
Tonsils   100 μl 200 μl 200 μl
Sub-lingual 100 μl   
Vaccine dose (CFU) 5.67 × 107 6.73 × 107
Culture sample Section Section Complete Complete
Inoculum volume per 7H11 agar plate 400 μl 100 μl
Volume of saline added per sample 3, 5 or 10 ml saline to 0–0.5 g, 0.5–1 g and > 1 g tissues, respectively 10 ml saline
RT-PCR primers IS6110, IS1081, IS1561’, hsp65, RD1 flanking region IS6110, IS1081, IS1561’, RV1510
Tissues pooled None Left and right tonsils (pool 1), retro-pharyngeal (pool 2) and mandibular (pool 3) lymph nodes
Histology Yes No
Tracheal section wash Yes No
Environmental faecal sample Yes No
IGRA Yes Yes
ELISPOT Yes No