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Table 3 Odds ratios, coefficients, and p-values of the association between epidemiological factors and herd-level Johne’s disease status, based on ELISA assays performed on individual milk samples in 600 herds in Minnesota

From: Use of a voluntary testing program to study the spatial epidemiology of Johne’s disease affecting dairy herds in Minnesota: a cross sectional study

CovariatesNUnivariable analysisMultivariable analysis
Odds ratio (CI95%)p-value*βS.E.Odds ratio (CI95%)p-value*
Herd size  < 0.001   < 0.001
 1 to ≤195476Ref
 196 to ≤5531001.67(1.39–2.02)< 0.0011.580.434.84(2.20–12.27)< 0.001
 554 to 19292413.74(2.86–246.87)0.0111.541.084.67(0.83–88.29)0.153
Testing frequency  < 0.001   < 0.001
 1208Ref
 > 1 to ≤52083.04(2.03–4.57)< 0.0011.030.212.81(1.86–4.29)< 0.001
 6 to ≤208013.15(6.16–32.64)< 0.0012.480.4311.85(5.44–29.82)< 0.001
 21 to 3010464.30(19.64–396.39)< 0.0013.770.7343.34(13.00–269.33)< 0.001
Soil type (texture)  < 0.001   0.017
 Sand189Ref
 Silt1152.87(1.69–5.01)< 0.0010.630.321.88(1.01–3.54)0.047
 Loam2901.79(1.21–2.63)0.0030.630.221.88(1.21–2.93)0.005
 Clay63.59(0.56–69.51)0.251.621.155.04(0.68–102.54)0.162
Herd turnover rate  0.164    
 18 to 37192Ref     
 38 to 502361.02(0.93–1.11)0.698    
 51 to 78260.79(0.66–0.95)0.014    
Soil pH  0.004    
 < 6.044Ref    
 6.0 to 7.04672.15(1.14–4.03)0.02    
 > 7.0892.21(1.05–4.70)0.037    
Hydrologic soil type  0.87    
 A57Ref     
 B2051.23(0.64–2.29)0.527    
 C1190.95(0.47–1.85)0.874    
 D2110.95(0.49–1.76)0.872    
Participation in VJDHSPa 0.84    
 Non-participants576Ref    
 Participants241.09(0.46–2.87)0.84    
Agroecological zone  0.57    
 Crop/Grassland534Ref    
 Non-vegetated land520.85(0.76–0.96)0.76    
 Shrubland70.94(0.82–1.07)0.50    
 Deciduous Forest71.08(0.95–1.22)0.50    
Spatial dependence
 1 km0  λ = N/A  
 5 km344  λ = 0.00 0.962
 10 km519  λ = 0.03 0.171
 15 km565  λ = 0.02 0.256
 20 km580  λ = 0.01 0.157
 109.7 km600  λ = −0.01 0.352
  1. *p-values from the Likelihood Ratio Test. Spatial correlation parameter (λ). a VJDHSP = USDA Voluntary Johne’s Disease Herd Status Program for Cattle program