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Table 1 Herd demographic factors and environmental factors associated with JD in North American dairy cattle, according to the published literature

From: Use of a voluntary testing program to study the spatial epidemiology of Johne’s disease affecting dairy herds in Minnesota: a cross sectional study

 CovariatesReference
1Herd size[38,39,40]
2Testing frequency[29]
3Soil type (texture)[22]
4Soil pH[41, 42]
5Soil hydrologic characteristics i.e. run-off potential[22, 43]
6Agroecological zone (Montane/Boreal forest/Grassland/Parkland)[39]
7Participating the USDA Voluntary Johne’s Disease Herd Status Program i.e. VJDHSP (n = 24)[9, 30]
8Spatial dependence: Presence of neighboring dairy farms[44]