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Table 1 Effects influencing the individual birth weight of puppies. Comparison of the variance components of a model without covariates (Model 1) and a model with covariates (2). The direct-maternal covariance was held at zero

From: Heritabilities for the puppy weight at birth in Labrador retrievers

Covariate/Variance Model 1 Model 2
Adult weight of the dam in kg   5.30
Inbreeding coefficient of the individual   −81.20
Inbreeding coefficient of the dam   101.17
Sex   −24.37
Year of birth   2.16
Length of gestation in days   5.84
Size of the litter   −11.40
Parity   3.95
Parity squared   −4.18
Variance direct genetic 1032.40 657.13
Variance maternal genetic 1088.56 835.16
Variance dam environmental 357.67 273.48
Variance litter environmental 701.47 324.80
Residual 1765.53 1787.46
Total variance 4945.64 3878.04