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Table 2 Ultrasonographic measurements of jugular veins, obtained in longitudinal and transverse scans, expressed as the mean ± SD (median; range) in the age sub-category groups. Different lowercase letters (a, b and c) indicate significant differences between groups (P < 0.05)

From: Ultrasonographic assessment of normal jugular veins in Standardbred horses

Scansion Ultrasound Parameters Age group
Young (3–7 years old) Mature (8–14 years old) Old (>  14 years old)
Longitudinal
Scan
Dorsoventral vein diameter (LDVVD) 1.65 ± 0.16a cm (1.72;1.11–1.85) 1.58 ± 0.27 a cm (1.61;0.96–2.28) 1.58 ± 0.28 a cm (1.59;0.98–2.27)
Superficial wall thickness (SWT) 0.07 ± 0.01a cm (0.08;0.06–0.09) 0.08 ± 0.01b cm (0.08;0.05–0.1) 0.07 ± 0.01a cm (0.07;0.05–0.11)
Deep wall thickness (DWT) 0.08 ± 0.01a cm (0.08;0.06–0.1) 0.08 ± 0.01a cm (0.08-;0.06–0.11) 0.08 ± 0.01a cm (0.08;0.05–0.11)
Transverse scan Dorsoventral vein diameter (TDVVD) 1.54 ± 0.18 a cm (1.53; 1.2–1.9) 1.59 ± 0.23a cm (1.58;1.01–2.12) 1.56 ± 0.25a cm (1.55;1.08–2.12)
Lateromedial vein diameter (LMVD) 2.02 ± 0.19a cm (2.02;1.55–2.33) 2.10 ± 0.25b cm (2.21;1.43–2.76) 2.29 ± 0.24c cm (2.29;1.86–2.8)
Superficial wall thickness (SWT) 0.07 ± 0.01a cm (0.07;0.05–0.08) 0.07 ± 0.01 a cm (0.07;0.04–0.11) 0.07 ± 0.01a cm (0.07;0.04–0.09)
Deep wall thickness (DWT) 0.08 ± 0.01a cm (0.08;0.05–0.1) 0.08 ± 0.01a cm (0.08;0.05–0.1) 0.07 ± 0.01 a cm (0.07;0.04–0.1)
Vein perimeter (VP) 5.65 ± 0.50a cm (5.67;4.52–6.62) 6.02 ± 0.64b cm (6.09;3.89–7.64) 6.17 ± 0.65b cm (6.25;4.84–7.78)