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Table 1 Mean ± standard deviation (SD), median, minimum and maximum values for each ultrasound measurement of the jugular veins, obtained in longitudinal and transverse scans. Sub-category values (mean ± SD) for side, weight, withers height and neck length, as identified by a standard least square model for effects’ leverage analysis, were reported

From: Ultrasonographic assessment of normal jugular veins in Standardbred horses

  Ultrasound parameters    Morphometric parameters
Mean ± SD (Median; range) cm Side Weight (494.44 ± 41.73 cm) Withers height (159.40 ± 4.96 cm) Neck length (51.89 ± 5.54 cm)
Longitudinal
Scan
Dorsoventral vein diameter (LDVVD) 1.59 ± 0.26 (1.61;0.96–2.28) left right < 52 cm ≥52 cm
1.65 ± 0.24 1.53 ± 0.27 1.51 ± 0.27 1.70 ± 0.21
Superficial wall thickness (SWT) 0.08 ± 0.01 (0.08;0.05–0.11) ≤490 kg > 490 kg
0.07 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01
Deep wall thickness (DWT) 0.08 ± 0.01 (0.08;0.05–0.11)
Transverse scan Dorsoventral vein diameter (TDVVD) 1.58 ± 0.23 (1.57; 1.01–2.12) < 52 cm ≥52 cm
1.54 ± 0.23 1.61 ± 0.23
Lateromedial vein diameter (LMVD) 2.20 ± 0.25 (2.21;1.43–2.80)
Superficial wall thickness (SWT) 0.07 ± 0.01* (0.07;0.04–0.10) ≤159 cm > 159 cm < 52 cm ≥52 cm
0.073 ± 0.01 0.069 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01
Deep wall thickness (DWT) 0.08 ± 0.01* (0.08;0.04–0.10) ≤159 cm > 159 cm < 50 cm ≥50 cm
0.08 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01
Vein perimeter (VP) 5.65 ± 0.50 (5.67;4.52–6.62)
  1. * indicates significant differences between longitudinal and transverse scans (P < 0.05)