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Table 2 Structural equation model statistical output showing host characteristics predicting serological exposure status for co-infecting pathogens (except ClinL), and the covariance among pathogens (including ClinL), in domestic dogs. The covariances E. canis, A. platys, Hepatozoon spp. and M. haemocanis were PCR based diagnosed. In all cases, except age, variables are binomial (0 or 1) with 1 equal to male, outside, ectoparasites controlled, pedigree and positive pathogen status

From: Associations between clinical canine leishmaniosis and multiple vector-borne co-infections: a case-control serological study

  Standardised coefficient/covariance z-value P-value
E. canis/E. ewingii serology
 Age −0.081 −0.908 0.364
 Sex −0.015 − 0.143 0.886
 Lifestyle 0.059 0.515 0.606
 Ectoparasite prevention −0.041 − 0.336 0.737
 Pedigree 0.015 0.142 0.887
A. phagocytophilum/A. platys serology
 Age −0.035 −0.415 0.678
 Sex 0.014 0.103 0.918
 Lifestyle −0.037 − 0.363 0.717
 Ectoparasite prevention −0.162 −1.532 0.126
 Pedigree −0.111 −0.861 0.389
Covariances
E. canis/E. ewingii ~~ ClinL 0.229 2.453 0.014
A. phagocytophilum/A. platys ~~ ClinL 0.183 1.654 0.098*
E. canis/E. ewingii ~~ A. phagocytophilum/A. platys 0.180 1.443 0.149
E. canis/E. ewingii ~~ E. canis 0.317 2.164 0.030
E. canis/E. ewingii ~~ A. platys 0.009 0.092 0.926
E. canis/E. ewingii ~~ Hepatozoon spp. 0.068 0.747 0.455
E. canis/E. ewingii ~~ M. haemocanis 0.099 1.015 0.310
A. phagocytophilum/A. platys ~~ E. canis −0.015 −0.358 0.721
A. phagocytophilum/A. platys ~~ A. platys 0.349 1.290 0.197
A. phagocytophilum/A. platys ~~ Hepatozoon spp. −0.106 −1.167 0.243
A. phagocytophilum/A. platys ~~ M. haemocanis 0.000 −0.005 0.996
  1. Significant relationships (P < 0.05) denoted by bold font and trending relationships (P < 0.1) denoted by *
  2. Abbreviations: VBP Vector-borne pathogen, ClinL Clinical leishmaniosis, E. canis Ehrlichia canis, E. ewingii Ehrlichia ewingii, A. phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys. Anaplasma platys, M. haemocanis Mycoplasma haemocanis