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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study dog groups and serology results for the VBPs tested. All dogs tested negative for Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies

From: Associations between clinical canine leishmaniosis and multiple vector-borne co-infections: a case-control serological study

Characteristic No. of cases
ClinL (%) (n = 47)
No. of Control (%) (n = 87)
Age in years
 Median 3.0 4.1
 Interquartile range 3.3 3.0
Sex
 Male 23 (49) 47 (54)
 Female 24 (51) 40 (46)
Lifestyle
 Outdoors 34 (72) 65 (75)
 Mainly indoors 13 (28) 22 (25)
Ectoparasitic prevention
 Used 16 (34) 36 (41)
 Not used 31 (66) 51 (59)
Breed
 Pedigree 33 (70) 65 (75)
 Crossbreed 14 (30) 22 (25)
E. canis/E. ewingii
 Positive 17 (36) 14 (16)
 Negative 30 (64) 73 (84)
A. phagocytophilum/A. platys
 Positive 5 (10) 2 (2)
 Negative 42 (90) 85 (98)
D. immitis
 Positive 2 (4) 0 (0)
 Negative 45 (96) 87 (100)
  1. Abbreviations: VBP Vector-borne pathogen, ClinL Clinical leishmaniosis, E. canis Ehrlichia canis, E. ewingii Ehrlichia ewingii, D. immitis Dirofilaria immitis, A. phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys. Anaplasma platys