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Table 1 Perceptions on general biosecurity, control interventions, attitudes on pig business and relation with neighbours

From: Smallholders’ perceptions on biosecurity and disease control in relation to African swine fever in an endemically infected area in Northern Uganda

Statement Perceptiona
Second occasionb Third Occasionb
General biosecurity
 I think it is possible to protect my pigs from getting ASFc by improving farm bio security 4/3.80 (4; 4) 4/3.79 (4; 4)
 ASF can not be prevented 2/2.34 (2; 3) 2/2.15 (2; 2)**
 I would like to invest in farm biosecurity if I received advice on what to do 4/3.79 (4; 4) 4/3.80 (4; 4)
 Improved farm biosecurity improves pig health and pig growth 4/3.99 (4; 4) 4/4.09 (4; 4)**
 Buying live pigs is a risk behaviour for contracting ASF 4/3.87 4; 4) 4/4.10 4; 4)***
 Frequent selling and buying of pigs is necessary for successful pig farming 2/2.57 (2; 4) 3/2.84 (2; 4)**
 Eating pork from pigs that have died from ASF is safe for human health 2/2.65 (2; 3) 2/2.65 (2; 3)
 I don’t want to eat or buy pork from pigs that have died from ASF 4/4.26 (4; 5) 5/4.43** (4; 5)
 Cooking kills the ASF virus 2/2.47 (2; 3) 2/2.63 (2; 4)
 If pork prices are lower in the neighbouring village due to them having an outbreak of ASF, I will buy my pork there 2/1.81 (1; 2) 2/1.62 (1; 2)***
Control interventions
 If I would get a fair price I would be willing to sell all my healthy pigs when an ASF outbreak occurred in the area 2/2.56 (2; 3) 2/2.42 (2; 3)*
 I would be happy to buy pork products from a slaughterhouse that receive pigs that have been in contact with pigs dying from ASF 2/1.74 (1; 2) 2/1.67 (1; 2)
 I can choose where to/to whom I sell my pigs 4/3.41 (3; 4) 3/2.83 (2, 4)***
 I could adopt my pig farming in order to have pigs ready for sale at specific times of the year 3/2.89 (2; 4) 2/2.63 (2; 3)***
 It is possible for me to tell visitors not to enter in the pig-house with their own boots 4/3.60 (3; 4) 4/3.77 (3; 5)*
Attitude
 I have lost confidence in pig production 1/1.51 (1; 2) 1/1.35 (1; 1)***
 I feel more optimistic about the pig enterprise 5/4.38 (4; 5) 5/4.48 (4; 5)*
Other
 There has been an increase in disputes, disagreements or jealousy among my neighbours 1/1.79 (1; 2) 1/1.73 (1; 2)
  1. * = p ≤ 0.1; ** = p < 0.05; *** = p < 0.01
  2. aPerceptions were measured as agreements with given statements according to a Likert-scale with five levels: strongly agree = 5; agree = 4; neither agree nor disagree = 3; Disagree = 2; Strongly disagree = 1. Changes in perception between the two interview occasions were evaluated using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank Test
  3. bMedian/mean (1st; 3rd quarantile)
  4. cASF African swine fever