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Fig. 2 | BMC Veterinary Research

Fig. 2

From: Canine platelets express functional Toll-like receptor-4: lipopolysaccharide-triggered platelet activation is dependent on adenosine diphosphate and thromboxane A2 in dogs

Fig. 2

Representative confocal and super resolution immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrating TLR4 expression on a resting, b ADP-, c thrombin-activated and d permabilized resting canine platelets. a-c Following activation, platelets were fixed and stained for TLR4 (red), P-selectin (green) and the integrin β3 (blue). a In the absence of platelet agonists, resting platelets as outlined by the abundant integrin β3 show limited to no expression of P-selectin on the membrane surface. Note the aggregregated appearance of exteriorized TLR4 (arrow) b,c In ADP- and thrombin-activated platelets, TLR4 expression is upregulated and is evently distributed across the membrane surface. Note the formation of pseudopodia and colocalization of TLR4 and P-selectin (arrowheads) on activated platelets c Extensive platelet aggregation can be seen in thrombin-activated platelets. Scale bar = 5 μm. Original magnification 100x d Resting platelets were fixed, permabilized and stained for TLR4 (red) and P-selectin (green). A single z-plane is shown here to demonstrate the presence of alpha-granules within a platelet (asterisk). Intracellular TLR4 can be seen within the alpha-granules (arrows). Scale bar = 4 μm. Experiment was replicated twice from platelets isolated from 2 dogs

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