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Table 2 Blood biochemistry parameters of birds hatching from enrofloxacin- and marbofloxacin-exposed eggs. Values represent mean ± SD; n = 11, 7 and 6 in control, enrofloxacin- and marbofloxacin-exposed birds, respectively; * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01 (when compared against the control group; as there was no significant difference between the control groups, C1 = untreated control and C2 = sham-treated control eggs (aqua pro injectione) were grouped. Blood samples were obtained from chicks on the day of hatching

From: Reproductive toxicity of fluoroquinolones in birds

Parameters Groups of in ovo exposed birds
Control Enrofloxacin-treated
Dose E2
Marbofloxacin-treated
Dose M2
TPRO (g/l) 24.00 ± 2.45 17.71 ± 1.70** 20.00 ± 1.55**
BUN (mmol/l) 3.35 ± 1.59 4.46 ± 2.05 3.1 ± 1.14
UA (μmol/l) 429.55 ± 107.33 288.57 ± 139.73* 267.00 ± 75.82*
BUN/UA 7.99 ± 3.77 17.57 ± 8.91* 12.67 ± 5.85
Ca (mmol/l) 2.33 ± 0.41 2.51 ± 0.50 2.52 ± 0.38
IP (mmol/l) 0.74 ± 0.23 0.87 ± 0.16 1.17 ± 0.47*
Mg (mmol/l) 0.75 ± 0.05 0.78 ± 0.08 0.75 ± 0.14
GLU (mmol/l) 11.66 ± 0.59 12.76 ± 0.77* 12.08 ± 1.11
TG (mmol/l) 0.34 ± 0.09 0.61 ± 0.34* 0.61 ± 0.24*
TBIL (μmol/l) 5.09 ± 2.43 6.57 ± 1.40 6.00 ± 1.10
T-Chol (mmol/l) 10.13 ± 0.94 9.50 ± 0.55 9.86 ± 1.07
HDL-Chol (mmol/l) 5.99 ± 0.75 5.66 ± 1.06 6.10 ± 1.24
AMY (μkat/l) 11.98 ± 5.42 9.70 ± 2.28 8.33 ± 4.32
AST (μkat/l) 3.39 ± 1.61 4.17 ± 1.97 4.15 ± 1.15
ALP (μkat/l) 69.10 ± 17.96 66.00 ± 14.93 62.52 ± 28.39
CK (μkat/l) 26.29 ± 16.54 37.95 ± 9.99 29.75 ± 10.60
LDH (μkat/l) 27.42 ± 15.04 34.50 ± 17.46 45.95 ± 19.69
  1. Group labels: control birds (C), data for chicks hatching from untreated and sham-treated control eggs were grouped together in this analysis; birds exposed to fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin (dose E2 = 10 μg of enrofloxacin per 1 g of egg weight) and marbofloxacin (dose M2 = 10 μg of marbofloxacin per 1 g of egg weight)
  2. Abbreviations: TPRO total protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, UA uric acid, BUN/UA ratio blood urea nitrogen/uric acid, Ca calcium, IP inorganic phosporus, Mg magnesium, GLU glucose, TG triglycerides, TBIL total bilirubin, T-Chol total cholesterol, HDL-Chol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, AMY amylase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, CK creatine kinase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase