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Table 13 Purposes of use of each type of test among control programs in 22 countries. Data are the number of countries, sorted by frequency of test

From: Control of paratuberculosis: who, why and how. A review of 48 countries

Test Individual animal diagnosis Individual animal certification/ assurance Herd-level screening Herd-level certification/ assurance Other purpose Test is not used
Serum ELISA 17 2 14 9 2 3
Faecal PCR - individual 18 8 9 8 2 4
Faecal culture - individual 17 3 5 5 1 5
Pathology 15 1 1 2 2 6
Faecal PCR - pooled 3   11 6   10
Milk ELISA - individuals 10   11 6 1 11
Faecal culture - pooled 3   8 4   12
Milk ELISA - bulk milk    6 1 1 15
Environmental faecal test - culture or PCR 1 1 6 4   16
Complement fixation test 4 1 2    17
Faecal ZN smear 4 1 2 1 1 18
Other    2    20
Intradermal skin test 1      21
Serum AGID 1      21