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Table 11 Practices and tools used in control programs for paratuberculosis in 22 countries listed by frequency of inclusion

From: Control of paratuberculosis: who, why and how. A review of 48 countries

Tool No. of countries % of countries
Cull clinical cases 19 86.4
Hygienic rearing of neonates/juvenile livestock 17 77.3
Farm-level biosecurity to prevent introduction of infection 17 77.3
Test and cull subclinical cases 16 72.7
Environmental and pasture management 14 63.6
Communications program 14 63.6
Herd/flock assurance certification 13 59.1
Research program 11 50.0
Vaccination 7 31.8
Regional biosecurity to prevent introduction of infection 5 22.7
National biosecurity to prevent introduction of infection 4 18.2
Other 4 18.2
Stamping out infected herds/flocks 3 13.6
Individual animal assurance certification 3 13.6