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Table 6 Relative mRNA levels of MyoD, Myogenin, IFG-1, GH, PAX7 and PCNA in the muscle tissues at days 14 and 28 post hatch in broiler chicks subjected to different thermal manipulation protocols during embryonic life (ED12–18)

From: Thermal manipulation of the broilers embryos: expression of muscle markers genes and weights of body and internal organs during embryonic and post-hatch days

Post-Hatch days Parameters Groups
Control TM1 TM2 TM3 TM4
Day 14 MyoD 1 ± 0.03a 1.16 ± 0.06a 1.53 ± 0.03b 2.29 ± 0.01c 1.64 ± 0.07b
Myogenin 1 ± 0.06a 0.44 ± 0.02b 0.79 ± 0.03c 1.67 ± 0.06d 0.49 ± 0.01b
IGF-1 1 ± 0.04a 1.40 ± 0.04b 1.92 ± 0.05c 2.25 ± 0.02d 1.60 ± 0.09e
GH 1 ± 0.01a 0.39 ± 0.01b 0.56 ± 0.07b 1.40 ± 0.06c 0.51 ± 0.01b
PAX7 1 ± 0.03a 1.09 ± 0.06a 1.34 ± 0.05b 2.02 ± 0.01c 1.29 ± 0.03b
PCNA 1 ± 0.03a 1.28 ± 0.05b 1.63 ± 0.03b 1.56 ± 0.06b 1.73 ± 0.04b
Day 28 MyoD 1 ± 0.03a 1.55 ± 0.03b 3.44 ± 0.11c 1.53 ± 0.02b 1.78 ± 0.01b
Myogenin 1 ± 0.06a 0.10 ± 0.22b 4.44 ± 0.05c 1.04 ± 0.08a 1.30 ± 0.02d
IGF-1 1 ± 0.04a 1.48 ± 0.07b 3.53 ± 0.05c 2.99 ± 0.05d 2.53 ± 0.07e
GH 1 ± 0.01a 1.12 ± 0.01b 4.09 ± 0.07d 1.93 ± 0.05c 1.17 ± 0.06c
PAX7 1 ± 0.03a 1.96 ± 0.06b 3.44 ± 0.13c 1.53 ± 0.06d 2.21 ± 0.13b
PCNA 1 ± 0.03a 1.15 ± 0.02b 1.89 ± 0.16c 1.19 ± 0.03b 1.63 ± 0.05c
  1. TM: Thermal manipulation; MyoD: Myogenic differentiation gene; IGF-1: Insulin-like growth factor 1; GH: Growth hormone; Pax7: Paired box transcription factor; PCNA: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
  2. a-e Within the same row, means ± SD with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)