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Table 5 Potential risk factors for the presence of multidrug resistant APEC isolates in broiler farms

From: Identification of Escherichia coli from broiler chickens in Jordan, their antimicrobial resistance, gene characterization and the associated risk factors

Variables (risk factors) Coding Description Resistance status X2
p-value***
No* % R** S
Geographical location of the farm
 Plain 0 16 19 9 7 0.977
 Mountain 1 53 63.1 31 22
 Desert 2 15 17.9 9 6
Poultry house directiona
 South to north 0 57 67.9 22 35 0.00
 East to west 1 27 32.1 27 0
Distance from the high way and noisea
 On the high way 0 40 47.6 31 9 0.001
 Far from the high way 1 44 52.4 18 26
Type of ventilation system
 Natural 0 83 98.8 49 34 0.234b
 Mechanical 1 1 1.2 0 1 .417
Number of houses in the farm
 One 0 36 42.9 21 15 1.0
 Multiple 1 48 57.1 28 20
Distance in relation to other poultry farmsa
 Isolated 0 32 38.1 7 25 0.00
 Very close 1 52 61.9 42 10
Presence of wild birds and rodents in the farm
 No 0 1 1.2 0 1 0.234b
 Yes 1 83 98.8 49 34 .417
Application of pest control program
 No 0 12 14.3 8 4 0.527
 Yes 1 72 85.7 41 31
Frequency of litre discard
 Daily 0 29 34.5 19 10 0.332
 Weekly 1 55 65.5 30 25
Presentation of feed material
 Grounded 0 7 8.7 2 5 0.095b
 Pellets 1 77 91.7 47 30 0.122
Water sourcea
 Municipalities 0 64 76.2 31 33 0.001
 Artesian wells 1 20 23.8 18 2
Water tanks type
 Cement 0 10 11.9 6 4 0.909b
 Metallic 1 74 88.1 43 31 1.000
Frequency of water tanks cleaning
 Monthly 0 9 10.7 4 5 0.011b
 When needed 1 15 17.9 13 2
 Between cycles 2 55 65.5 27 28
 Weekly 3 5 6 5 0
Frequency of water tanks disinfecting
 Monthly 0 9 10.7 4 5 0.007b
 When needed 1 19 22.6 16 3
 Between cycles 2 51 60.7 24 27
 Weekly 3 5 6 5 0
Type of disinfectants used
 One type 0 58 69 35 23 0.576
 Mixed types 1 26 31 14 12
Disinfect farm entrance for visitors and vehicles
 No 0 49 58.3 26 23 0.246
 Yes 1 35 41.7 23 12
Workers wear protective cloth when handling birdsa
 No 0 56 77.4 49 16 0.00
 Yes 1 19 22.6 0 19
Restricted entrance against unauthorized traffica
 No 0 13 15.5 12 1 0.006
 Yes 1 71 84.5 37 34
Number of workers in the farm
 One 0 66 78.6 38 28 0.787
 More than one 1 18 21.4 11 7
Use antibiotic for disease preventiona
 No 0 51 60.7 26 25 0.089
 Yes 1 33 39.3 23 10
Use antibiotic as growth promotiona
 No 0 67 79.8 36 31 0.089
 Yes 1 17 20.2 13 4
Get prescription before use antimicrobialsa
 No 0 8 9.5 7 1 0.079b
 Yes 1 76 90.5 42 34 0.131
Perform necropsy before prescribing antibiotics
 No 0 34 40.5 21 13 0.599
 Yes 1 50 59.5 28 22  
Information source about antibioticsa
 Veterinarian 0 47 56 24 23 0.021
 Drug store 1 5 6 1 4
 Other (neighbours,training) 2 32 38.1 24 8
Keep antibiotics in the farm
 No 0 2 2.4 0 2 0.090b
 Yes 1 82 97.6 49 33 0.171
Perform antibiotic sensitivity before treatment
 No 0 47 56 28 19 0.795
 Yes 1 37 44 21 16
Frequency of antibiotics use during the cycle (~ 6 weeks)
 Less than five times 0 24 28.6 15 9 0.624
 Five or more times 1 60 71.4 34 26
Frequency of vet visits to the farm
 Once weekly 0 46 54.8 28 18 0.170b
 When needed 1 31 36.9 15 16
 Never 2 7 8.3 6 1
  1. * No: number of farms, **R: resistant farms (n = 49), S: sensitive farms (n = 35), ***X2 p- value: chi- square value for potential risk factors and resistant status of the farm, a: statistically significant at P ≤ 0.25 (two-sided), b: fisher exact test was performed instead of X2 when variables had expected count less than 5 in one or more cells