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Table 1 Overview of the pathogens (and other often isolated microbes), pathophysiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs and the resulting demands for topical prophylaxis and therapy of five skin diseases in dogs

From: Medicinal plants as therapeutic options for topical treatment in canine dermatology? A systematic review

Disease complex Opportunistic pathogens and other often isolated microbes Pathophysiology/and pathogenesis/ Main clinical signs Demands for topical prophylaxis and therapy
Bacteria Fungi
Pyoderma (pyotraumatic dermatitis, bacterial overgrowth syndrome, intertrigo, furunculosis, mucocutaneous pyoderma etc.)a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Nocardia spp., Actinobacillus spp., Mycobacterium spp., (Staphylococcus schleiferi), Proteus spp., Escherichia coli   bacterial infection, (micro-)trauma, moist skin, erosion/ulceration, hemorrhage, inflammation erythema, oedema), pain, alopecia, pruritus astringent, wound healing, antipruritic, analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory
Canine atopic dermatitisb Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus Malassezia pachydermatis allergens, skin barrier dysfunction, secondary infection, inflammation erythema, pruritus strengthening of skin barrier, antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-erythematous
Otitis externac Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., β-hemolytic Streptococci, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium spp. (auriscanis), Acinetobacter baumannii, Proteus mirabilis Malassezia pachydermatis, (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus) allergy, hypersensitivity, inflammation, secondary infection pain antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Wounds (traumatic/bite wounds, surgical wounds, wound infections)d Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Neisseria spp., Corynebacterium spp., Moraxella spp., Enterococcus spp., Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., Propionibacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Proteus mirabilis   bacterial infection, hemorrhage, inflammation pain astringent, wound healing, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Dermatophytosise   Microsporum canis, Trichophyton spp., (Microsporum gypseum) microtrauma erythema, (pruritus) antifungal, (anti-pruritic)
  1. a[1, 128, 129]; b [4, 111, 130, 131]; c [7, 112, 132,133,134,135,136]; d [10, 11, 136, 137]; e [3]