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Table 1 Ingredients and nutrient composition of the experimental diets

From: Treatment of corn with lactic acid or hydrochloric acid modulates the rumen and plasma metabolic profiles as well as inflammatory responses in beef steers

Items Dieta
LA HA CON
Ingredients, % of DM
 Chinese wildrye 11.50 11.50 11.50
 Sorghum distiller’s grains 28.50 28.50 28.50
 Corn grain (water-treated) 48.76
 Corn grain (LA-treated) 48.76
 Corn grain (HA-treated) 48.76
 Rapeseed meal 8.61 8.61 8.61
 Salt 0.30 0.30 0.30
 Limestone 2.05 2.05 2.05
 Premixb 0.28 0.28 0.28
Nutrients, % of DM
 Crude protein 13.5 13.8 13.6
 Ether extract 4.2 4.2 4.2
 Neutral detergent fibre 34.5 34.6 34.4
 Acid detergent fibre 14.3 13.7 14.4
 Crude ash 5.1 4.8 4.8
 Calcium 0.35 0.36 0.38
 Total phosphorus 0.31 0.29 0.31
 Nonfiber carbohydratec 42.7 42.6 43.0
 Starch in corn grain 63.4 66.0 71.8
  1. aLA is the treatment diet based on corn grain steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water containing 1% lactic acid (wt/vol), HA is the treatment diet based on corn grain steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water containing 1% hydrochloric acid (wt/vol), and CON is the control diet containing corn grain steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water
  2. bFormulated to provide the following (per kg diet): Fe (as ferrous sulfate), 50 mg; Cu (as copper sulfate), 10 mg; Mn (as manganese sulfate), 20 mg; Co (as cobaltous sulfate), 0.1 mg; Zn (as zinc sulfate), 30 mg; I (as potassium iodate), 0.5 mg; Se (as sodium selenite), 0.1 mg; vitamin A, 2240 IU; vitamin D3, 500 IU; vitamin E, 40 IU; riboflavin, 6.2 mg; nicotinic acid, 22 mg; D-pantothenic acid, 22 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; biotin, 0.15 mg; and choline, 0.92 mg
  3. cNonfiber carbohydrate (%) = 100 - (% neutral detergent fibre + % crude protein + % ether extract + % crude ash)