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Table 2 Effects of soft tissue artifacts on the estimation of joint angles

From: Quantification of three-dimensional soft tissue artifacts in the canine hindlimb during passive stifle motion

  Flexion/extension (°) Adduction/abduction (°) Internal/external rotation (°)
Cycle SM VM (SM–VM) p-value SM VM (SM–VM) p-value SM VM (SM–VM) p-value
0% 141.1 ± 7.4 147.6 ± 8.5 −6.6 ± 2.6 < 0.001* 4.3 ± 7.3 −0.9 ± 5.7 5.1 ± 4.1 0.004* 35.5 ± 12.0 9.2 ± 13.1 26.4 ± 12.0 < 0.001*
10% 132.1 ± 8.9 137.9 ± 9.7 −5.8 ± 2.5 < 0.001* 5.1 ± 8.1 −0.1 ± 6.7 5.2 ± 4.5 0.005* 31.7 ± 11.6 9.4 ± 12.2 22.3 ± 11.1 < 0.001*
20% 121.6 ± 10.4 126.8 ± 11.2 −5.2 ± 2.3 < 0.001* 6.0 ± 8.8 0.8 ± 8.1 5.1 ± 4.8 0.009* 27.0 ± 11.1 9.4 ± 10.7 17.6 ± 10.4 0.001*
30% 110.1 ± 12.0 114.5 ± 12.8 −4.4 ± 2.2 < 0.001* 6.7 ± 9.3 2.5 ± 9.2 4.2 ± 5.6 0.043* 21.7 ± 10.8 8.3 ± 9.3 13.4 ± 9.6 0.002*
40% 98.6 ± 12.8 102.1 ± 13.6 −3.5 ± 2.3 0.001* 6.8 ± 9.6 3.8 ± 9.8 3.0 ± 6.6 0.184 16.3 ± 10.3 7.0 ± 7.7 9.3 ± 8.3 0.006*
50% 88.1 ± 12.9 90.4 ± 13.6 −2.4 ± 2.2 0.008* 6.8 ± 9.3 4.8 ± 10.0 1.9 ± 6.6 0.384 11.9 ± 9.6 6.0 ± 6.3 6.0 ± 6.3 0.015*
60% 78.7 ± 12.7 79.9 ± 13.4 −1.2 ± 2.2 0.128 6.4 ± 9.1 5.5 ± 9.6 0.9 ± 6.4 0.672 8.4 ± 9.1 5.2 ± 5.9 3.2 ± 4.7 0.058
70% 70.5 ± 12.2 70.7 ± 13.0 −0.3 ± 2.4 0.741 6.1 ± 8.5 5.8 ± 9.3 0.3 ± 5.9 0.894 5.8 ± 9.1 4.8 ± 6.5 1.0 ± 3.5 0.392
80% 63.9 ± 11.7 63.6 ± 12.7 0.3 ± 2.7 0.727 5.8 ± 8.1 6.0 ± 8.7 −0.2 ± 4.8 0.903 3.8 ± 9.5 4.9 ± 7.5 −1.1 ± 3.3 0.323
90% 59.0 ± 10.6 58.5 ± 12.2 0.5 ± 2.9 0.623 6.0 ± 7.6 6.3 ± 8.5 −0.3 ± 4.4 0.856 2.3 ± 10.1 4.4 ± 8.2 −2.1 ± 3.4 0.078
100% 55.9 ± 10.6 55.7 ± 12.5 0.2 ± 2.9 0.841 6.4 ± 7.3 6.8 ± 8.4 −0.4 ± 4.3 0.757 0.9 ± 10.4 3.5 ± 8.3 −2.6 ± 3.6 0.051
  1. The stifle flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, and internal/external rotation values based on the skin markers (SM) and virtual markers (VM) were computed. Data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation across subjects. The data points were normalized for a complete motion cycle and are expressed as percentages. Differences between the two measurement outcomes were also calculated by subtracting the VM results from the SM results. Asterisks indicate significant differences (p < 0.05)