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Table 1 Effect of weaning stress on circulating plasma cortisol, norepinephrine, haptoglobin, and tumor necrosis factor concentrations

From: An intensive milk replacer feeding program benefits immune response and intestinal microbiota of lambs during weaning

Variable   Days post weaning1    P-values3
Group 0 1 2 3 7 SEM T2 S T × S
Cortisol (ng/mL) C 115.77 142.64a,x 120.33 119.62 120.12 2.40 NS NS NS
  H 122.53 111.47y 118.85 112.49 111.87 2.11
NE (ng/mL) C 1412.86 1543.44x 1668.37b,x 1515.79 1431.62 29.91 * NS *
  H 1472.32 1337.93y 1335.44y 1340.49 1363.97 31.75
HP (ng/mL) C 51.34 52.72x 52.40 50.42x 50.24x 1.33 ** NS NS
  H 53.46 45.16a,y 46.87 42.81b,y 40.67c,y 1.48
TNFα (ng/mL) C 91.86 109.35a,x 100.13 94.80 94.78 1.74 NS NS NS
  H 98.21 88.66y 97.17 88.20 96.53 2.56
  1. Values are expressed as least squares means (LS-means)
  2. 11, 2, 3, 7 d relative to weaning (= 0 d)
  3. 2T: MR treatment; S: sampling time; T × S: MR treatment × sampling time interaction
  4. 3Superscripts a, b, c within rows to indicate the LS-means differ from 1, 2, 3, and 7 d compared with 0 d by P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively; x, y within columns, to indicate that the LS-means differ between the C and H groups by P < 0.05; * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01, NS: not significant (P > 0.05)