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Table 3 Analysis of risk factors for camel seropositivity, multivariable analysis showing odds ratios using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model considering the panel variable at herd level

From: Risk factors of brucellosis seropositivity in Bactrian camels of Mongolia

  n neg % neg n pos % pos OR 95% CI p-value
Province Dornogobi 385 99.2 3 0.8 ref   
Dornod 228 94.6 13 5.4 7.9 2.1–30.1 0.003
Khovd 368 99.7 1 0.3 0.4 0.05–3.2 0.4
Sukhbaatar 280 94.0 18 6.0 10.2 2.7–38.6 0.001
Umnogobi 524 99.6 2 0.4 0.5 0.1–2.4 0.4
Age class ≤ 4 years 248 98.2 5 1.8 ref   
>  4 years 1537 98.0 32 2.0 1.2 0.4–3.2 0.7
Sex Female 1403 99.2 26 1.8 ref   
Male 322 97.0 10 3.0 0.8 0.3–1.8 0.5
Year 2013 224 94.5 13 5.5 ref   
2014 1177 98.2 22 1.8 1.0 0.4–2.4 1.0
2015 384 99.5 2 0.5 1.0 0.2–5.6 1.0
Cattle present no 238 100 0 0.0 ref   
yes 1547 97.7 37 2.3 8.1 1.5-inf 0.01Ɨ
Sheep present no 126 100 0 0.0 ref   
yes 1659 97.8 37 2.2 4.0 0.7- inf 0.1 Ɨ
Goats present no 102 100 0 0.0 ref   
yes 1683 97.8 37 2.2 3.2 0.6- inf 0.2 Ɨ
  1. Ɨ -exact logistic regression, * p ≤ 0.05