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Table 2 A preliminary survey of major diseases of ruminants Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia (2015–2016)

From: A preliminary survey of major diseases of ruminants and management practices in Western Tigray province, northern Ethiopia

Disease characteristics Vernacular names Agro ecology Ethno-veterinary medicine Practices
Lowland count (%) Midland count (%) Highland count (%)
Tick infestation Kurdid 53 (94.6) 21 (80.8) 34 (87.2) Topical lotion with kerosene, picking manually
Lice infestation Kumal, Kunchi-gobay 35 (62.5) 18 (69.2) 30 (76.9) Washing with ash
Flea infestation Kunchi 36 (64.3) 8 (30.8) 9 (23.1) Dipping in ponds Cutting, shearing, clipping the fur
Biting Flies Nihbay, Karma 35 (62.5) 10 (38.5) 7 (17.9)
Biting Birds Chirna’e 12 (21.4) ___ ___ Chasing from the back, Look after the back of their cattle against biting birds.
Mange mites Abek, Shuhur, Juri, Hafew 43 (76.8) 23 (88.5) 28 (71.8) Salt + butter (topical lotion)
Fasciolosis Kaba     
Sheep Kid Kimanjer 11 (19.6) ___ 6 (15.4)  
LSD Enfurur, Kubkubta, Togtogta, Shlimiye 27 (48.2) 10 (38.5) 15 (38.5) Coffee ceremonial practices, smoking
GIT parasitosis Wesfat, Gondera 29 (51.8) 13 (50.0) 13 (33.3) Drenching with sagla (leaf)
Trypanosomosis Silim 50 (89.3) 18 (69.2) 8 (20.5)  
Grass toxicosis Afel, Efel, Maget 5 (8.9) 5 (19.2) 16 (41.0) Drenching with yoghurt, Drenching with yoghurt, detergent and sesame oil.
Ovine pasteurellosis Mieta, Bueta 19 (33.9) 3 (11.5) 3 (7.7) Incision at facial artery
Caprine-pasteurollosis Mieta, Bueta 23 (41.1) 10 (38.5) 11 (28.2) Incision at facial artery
Bovine- pasteurellosis Yelam-geta, Halafiyien, Hangofta, Shuwta, Kofa 27 (48.2) 15 (57.7) 21 (53.8) Incision, Cauterization, Withholding water for 2–3 days
Anthrax Megerem, Nefri 14 (25.0) 8 (30.8) 8 (20.5) Cauterization
Lungworm Se’al 2 (3.6) 6 (23.1) 5 (12.8)
Arthritis Kirtimat 4 (7.3) 2 (7.7) 1 (2.6) Incising,cauterization
Ascites Himam-kebdi, Wel’e 0 (0.0) 5 (19.2) 8 (20.5) Cauterization
Shoat pox Infurur, Shilime 12 (21.4) 2 (7.7) 5 (12.5) Smoking, coffee ceremonial
Paramphistomiasis Keyahti-hasaku 6 (10.6) 5 (12.8)
Rabies Himam-Ebudkelbi 6 (23.1) 4 (10.3) Drinking whey (for humans)
Delayed heat period Awra-gedib 3 (5.4) 15 (57.7) 29 (74.4)
Leech infestation Alekti 4 (10.3) Nasal drenching with tobacco leaf
Foreign bodies Lastic 1 (1.8) 3 (11.5) 2 (5.1)
Blackleg Weke’e 9 (16.1) 3 (11.5) 3 (7.7) Drenching with shenfa’e,cauterization
Bovine Tuberculosis Menkersa, Zigag 11 (19.6) Cauterization,dusting.
Parafilariasis   4 (10.3) Lotion with honey
Listroiosis Azurit 2 (5.1)  
Actinobacilosis Tokiba 5 (8.9) 5 (12.8) Topical lotion with Butter +Charcoal
Brucellosis Aber’e 3 (5.4) 5 (19.2) 1 (2.6)
Foot rot Finfin, Hinkasse 8 (16.3) 3 (11.5) Salting
Dermatophilosis Urit 2 (3.6) 2 (5.1)
Cow mastitis Himam-Tub 13 (23.2) 2 (5.1) Cauterization
Contagious Bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) Weke’e–samba, Samba-michi 11 (20.0) 5 (12.8)
Orf Kafay 11 (30.6) 4 (25.0) 3 (12.5) Water (H2O) + Salt (NaCl)
Pest petis des ruminants (PPR) Wetetie, Kur 12 (32.4) 4 (25.0) 3 (13.0)
Abortion Chinga’fe, Aber’e 17 (30.4) 3 (11.5) 3 (7.7)
Contagious caprinepleuro pneumonia Sanabu’e Samba-michi 3 (7.9) 2 (8.0)
Dystocia Himam-Hirsi 25 (44.6) 2 (7.7) 3 (7.7) Manual removal
Cysticercosis Koso 1 (2.6)
Hydatidosis 2 (3.6) 1 (2.6)
Tunga-penetrans Mojeliye 3 (5.4) 1 (2.6) Manual removal, salting
Retained fetal membrane Meskab 22 (39.3) 4 (15.4) 5 (12.8) Local plant medicine+H2O (drenched)
Uterine prolapsed Mahtsen Miglbat 11 (19.6) 3 (11.5) 2 (5.1) Manual intervention
Bloat Menfahti 3 (5.4) 5 (19.2) 14 (35.9) Drenching local malt, food oil, caticala/uozo and red peppers(powder), Puncturing(rumen)
Malignant tumor Mandaeti 1 (1.8) 1 (3.8) 0 (0.0)
Phimosis 1 (1.8) 2 (7.7) 0 (0.0)
Paraphimosis 1 (1.8) 1 (3.8) 1 (2.6)
Actinomycosis Zigag 6 (10.7) 2 (7.7) 1 (2.6) Puncturing, Cauterization
Abscess Hibat 4 (7.1) 2 (7.7) 2 (5.1) Incising, cauterization
Metritits Raksi-mahtsen 9 (16.1)
Thelaziasis Hasaka-Ayeni 2 (3.6) 3 (11.5) 1 (2.6) Manual drawing out
Bottle Jaw 1 (1.8) 3 (7.7)
Hyena bite Zibe’e, Arawit 4 (7.1) 4 (15.4) 2 (5.1) Slaughtering
Warts/skin cancers Tuba-adgi 2 (3.6) 5 (19.2) Cauterization, burning