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Table 5 Analysis of risk factors for limb movement, head lifting and/or vocalisation in goat kids anaesthetised with different anaesthesia protocols for horn disbudding. Final generalized estimation equation model correcting for the effect of the herd, n = 30 herds and 165 goat kids (CI, confidence interval; Ref, reference). The three goat kids of the acepromazine-ketamine group were excluded (to small group for statistical analysis). Six goat kids of the other four groups were excluded due to firm restraint

From: Evaluation of anaesthesia and analgesia quality during disbudding of goat kids by certified Swiss farmers

Risk factor Odds Ratio 95%CI OR p-Value
Anaesthesia protocol 0.003
 Recommended xylazine-ketamine mixture Ref Ref Ref
 Xylazine-ketamine (other dosage) 1.1 0.3–3.4 0.915
 Xylazine 1.8 0.3–9.4 0.503
 Xylazine-Lidocaine 0.1 0.0–0.3 < 0.001
Intervention of goat owner during induction 0.002
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 3.5 1.6–7.9 < 0.001