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Table 4 Analysis of risk factors for being able to stand steady after disbudding in goat kids anaesthetised with different protocols by certified Swiss farmers. Final generalized estimation equation model correcting for the effect of the herd, n = 29 herds and 152 goat kids (CI, confidence interval; Ref, reference). Twenty-two goat kids were excluded, because recovery could not be visited to the end

From: Evaluation of anaesthesia and analgesia quality during disbudding of goat kids by certified Swiss farmers

Risk factor Beta (in minutes) 95%CI p-Value
Anaesthesia protocol < 0.001
 Recommended xylazine-ketamine mixture Ref Ref Ref
 Xylazine-ketamine (other dosage) 14.7 −6.0-35.3 0.165
 Xylazine 71.7 49.5–93.8 < 0.001
 Xylazine-Lidocaine 62.1 41.4–82.8 < 0.001
Breed 0.008
 Chamois-Coloured Ref Ref Ref
 Saanen −20.2 −41.0-0.7 0.058
 Toggenburg 13.3 −8.0-34.6 0.222
Grisons Striped 24.9 1.4–48.4 0.038
Age of goat kids    < 0.001
 > 14 days Ref Ref Ref
 ≤ 14 days 17.7 8.9–26.4 < 0.001
Heat lamp in recovery box 0.008
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 28.4 7.6–49.3 0.008
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