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Table 1 Characteristics of different groups of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum based on their APP response

From: Use of acute phase proteins for the clinical assessment and management of canine leishmaniosis: general recommendations

  Characteristics Types of dog that fit each category Correspondence with guidelines
CRP and ferritin Clinical signs at physical exam   LeishVet CLWG
Group 1 In reference range No Infected but resistant to the development of clinical leishmaniosis.
Dogs that have responded to treatment.
Infected but no APR yet developed.
Not applicable Stage A (exposed)
Stage B (infected)
Group 2 Moderate increase in one or both of them No Expected to exhibit clinical signs in the future.
Have other conditions that increase APPs (infections, neoplasms or trauma).
Not applicable Stage A (exposed)
Stage B (infected)
Stage C (sick dogs)
Group 3(a) Moderate increase in one or both of them Yes Dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (mild to moderate disease). Stages I and II (mild to moderate disease) Stage C (sick dogs)
Group 3(b) Major increase in one or both of them Yes Dogs with severe clinical leishmaniosis with immunomediated complications. Stages III and IV (severe to very severe disease) Stage D (severely sick dogs)