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Table 1 Kinematic adaptations to lameness observed in previous and this study

From: Kinematic adaptions to induced short-term pelvic limb lameness in trotting dogs

  1. 1Lamness induction, before vs. after lameness induction, right paw
  2. 2Transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL), pre-OP vs. 1 week post-OP, left knee
  3. 3Deafferentiation and CCL-transection, healthy pre-OP vs. 1 week post-CCL-transection, left knee
  4. 4CCL-transection plus bone implants for kinematic analysis, pre-OP vs. 7 weeks post-OP, left knee
  5. 5CCL-transection, pre-OP vs. 4 weeks post-OP, right knee
  6. 6aTibial plateau levelling osteotomy or
  7. 6bCranial tibial wedge osteotomy after CCL-transection, 2 weeks pre-OP vs. 8 weeks post-OP, left knee
  8. 7Hip dysplasia, gold bead and placebo implantation before vs. 4 weeks after, more affected side
  9. 8CCL-transection, clinically healthy vs. CCL dogs, unilaterally affected
  10. 9Hip dysplasia, clinically healthy vs. HD dogs, more affected side
  11. Comparison of the kinematic changes observed in the joint angles of the affected pelvic limb (left columns) as well as the contralateral pelvic limb (right columns) in this vs. previous studies. The dogs trotted either on a treadmill or along a walkway. Study designs included before vs. after and subject vs. patient comparisons. Lameness was caused by dysfunctions of the ipsilateral paw, knee or hip (see footnotes for details). Kinematic values are: angle at touch-down (TD) and lift-off (LO) as well as minimum (min), maximum (max) and amplitude (i.e. range of motion, ROM) during stance (ST) and swing (SW) phases. Kinematic parameters in the respective comparisons increased (+), decreased (−) or were unchanged (=). Note that only kinematic changes ≥3° were considered an in- or decrease for this comparison. The threshold was based on the mean intraindividual variability observed in the current study (i.e. mSDs averaged across all limbs and conditions; Appendix: Supplementary Tabs. S1, S2). Double-pluses or -minuses indicate that the observed kinematic differences were significant in the respective study. Double-equals indicate that a significant change was observed but below the threshold used herein. No sign indicates that this parameter was not evaluated in the respective study. Similarities in the kinematic changes among studies looking at the dysfunctions of the paw, knee or hip, which potentially bear diagnostic value are bold and highlighted in grey. Also, note that some studies provided graphical representations of the data rather than tables (2–7, 9), thus hindering a more exact comparison of the kinematic information