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Table 2 Comparison of TMJ-OA lesion severity of affected individuals (at least one articular surface with a score > 0) between sexes in the different age classes as well as in the whole sample (Mann-Whitney U-Tests)

From: Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint in the Eastern Atlantic harbour seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina) from the German North Sea: a study of the lesions seen in dry bone

    N affected % affected M Mdn mean rank U z p d
Pooled max TMJ-OA male 507 58.8 1.43 1 459.43     
female 456 49.3 1.56 1 507.10     
total 963 53.9     104,152.0 −3.059 0.0022 0.172
sum TMJ-OA male 507 58.8 1.32 1 457.03     
female 456 49.3 1.45 1 509.77     
total 963 53.9     102,935.0 −3.567 0.0004 0.190
Juvenile/Subadult max TMJ-OA male 125 28.6 1.18 1 105.13     
female 98 20.7 1.38 1 120.76     
total 223 24.5     5266.5 −2.590 0.0096 0.242
sum TMJ-OA male 125 28.6 1.07 1 107.66     
female 98 20.7 1.16 1 117.53     
total 223 24.5     5583.0 −2.151 0.0315 0.152
Adult max TMJ-OA male 382 89.9 1.51 1 356.97     
female 358 79.2 1.61 1 384.94     
total 740 84.4     63,208.0 −1.997 0.0458 0.131
sum TMJ-OA male 382 89.9 1.40 1 351.51     
female 358 79.2 1.53 1 390.77     
total 740 84.4     61,122.5 −2.893 0.0038 0.184
  1. TMJ-OA is more frequent in males. Conversely, higher mean score (M) and mean rank indicate that females are more severely affected. In all age groups (juveniles/subadults only, adults only, both groups pooled) the difference between sexes is significant (p < 0.05). However, the effect size (Cohen’s d) is always rather small. Mdn – median score