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Table 3 The combined effect of risk factors according to the multivariable mixed-effects Poisson regression model for caprine herpesvirus-1 infection in Piedmont (Italy). N = 2879 (PR = prevalence ratio)

From: A cross-sectional study to identify a set of risk factors for caprine herpesvirus 1 infection

Risk factor Exposure level PR (95% CI) P-values
Breed Saanen Referent  
Chamoisee 2.9 (1.0–8.7) 0.053
Alpine 4.2 (1.4–12.5) 0.009
All others 4.4 (1.6–12.1) 0.005
Age 1 (2–16 months) Referent  
2 (17–31 months) 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 0.073
3 (32–56 months) 2.9 (1.9–4.4) 0.000
4 (> 56 months) 3.6 (2.3–5.5) 0.000
Breeding type Dairy Referent  
Meat/mixed 11.5 (1.2–113.8) 0.037
Management type Confined 1.0  
Extensive 8.7 (2.8–27.2) 0.000
Herd size (n. of animals) 1 (< 9 goats) Referent  
2 (9–21 goats) 1.4 (0.7–3.0) 0.323
3 (> 21 goats) 2.7 (1.4–5.3) 0.003
Presence of CAEV-infected goats No Referent  
Yes 5.4 (2.3–12.8) 0.000
  1. Likelihood-ratio test (mixed-effects model vs. fixed-effects model): P-value = 0.000