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Table 2 Association between CpHV-1 seropositivity and potential herd-level risk factors as estimated by univariate analysis for caprine herpesvirus-1 infection in Piedmont (Italy). N = 4542 (PR = prevalence ratio)

From: A cross-sectional study to identify a set of risk factors for caprine herpesvirus 1 infection

Risk factor Exposure level No. tested animals No. positive animals Prevalence (%) PR (95% CI) P-values
Presence of CAEV-infected goats No 1610 57 3.5 Referent  
Yes 2132 428 20.1 5.7 (4.3–7.5) 0.000
Breeding type Dairy 859 8 0.93 Referent  
Meat/mixed 3581 613 17.1 18.4 (9.2–36.9) 0.000
Management type Confined 1753 104 5.9 Referent  
Extensive 2665 505 18.8 3.2 (2.6–3.9) 0.000
Herd size (no. of animals)* 1 (< 9 goats) 506 50 9.9 Referent  
2 (9–21 goats) 777 99 12.7 1.3 (0.91–1.8) 0.143
3 (> 21 goats) 3259 481 14.8 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 0.007
Presence of co-inhabitant cattle No 2221 158 7.1 Referent  
Yes 2321 472 20.3 2.9 (2.4–3.4) 0.000
  1. *extension of the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for the herd size variable = 3.11; P value = 0.002