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Table 1 Lesion classification and the guidelines adopted to record the data

From: Development and test of a visual-only meat inspection system for heavy pigs in Northern Italy

Apparatus Lesion Guideline
Respiratory Pneumonia Detect both pneumonia and outcomes of pneumonia. Detect pneumonia when an entire lobe is interested, or when not involving the entire lobe, it involves two contralateral lobes. Always consider specific pneumonia. Consider lung abscesses (even one) as pneumonia.
Pleuropneumonia Is recognized when adhesions are present on the carcass. Is recognised when fibrin is present on the visceral layer of the pleura.
Digestive Hepatitis Hepatitis and outcomes of hepatitis. The presence of fibrin on the capsule should not be classified as hepatitis (classified as peritonitis).
Hepatosis/hepatic dystrophies Steatosis and necrosis are to be classified only in cases involving at least an entire lobe or parts of several lobes.
Peritonitis/perihepatitis  
Enteritis Haemorrhagic or necrotic. Thickening of the small intestine.
Reproductive-Urinary Nephritis Nephritis and glomerulonephritis.
Nephrosis Cystitis and hydronephrosis.
Cryptorchidism  
Cardio Circulatory Myocarditis Involvement of pericarditis. Do not classify degenerative processes in the absence of inflammation as myocarditis.
Pericarditis  
Integumentary Dermatitis Recognized when there is a thickening of the skin. Detect when lesions exceed 50% of the body surface and not when confined to the abdominal region and chest. Detect carcasses massively affected by bites of ectoparasites as dermatitis.
Erysipelas Detect whenever the typical skin lesions are encountered.
Locomotor Arthritis  
Muscle colour alteration (PSE/DFD) PSE / DFD
Oedema/emaciation  
Other (carcass) Jaundice  
Abscesses Detect all abscesses that are not located in the lung or in the liver. Also detect phlegmons as abscesses.
Neoplasms / tumours  
Biliary or faecal contamination Both faecal and bile contamination. In addition, the residual presence of parts of the rectal mucosa is considered contamination.
Trauma Skin
Bruises and injuries due to mismanagement during loading / unloading (bruises and haematomas). Wounds from intraspecific fights and numerous injuries that get to in the derma, possibly infected.
Skeletal muscle
Splay-leg animals (open). Do not report results of old injuries.
Lymphadenopathy Mesenteric lymph nodes, lung, and generally an increase in the volume of lymph nodes in the carcass.
Splenomegaly Detect when affecting more than 50% of the organ.
Petechial haemorrhages