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Table 4 Sedation and extraction quality for 40 horses using a visual analogue scale (1–10)

From: Effect of butorphanol, midazolam or ketamine on romifidine based sedation in horses during standing cheek tooth removal

Sedation protocol R RB RM RK
Sedation quality 5 (1–9) 5 (2–7) 4 (1–6) 3 (1–5)a
Extraction quality 5 (1–10) 4 (1–7) 3 (1–8) 3.5 (1–9)
Top-up boli of romifidine 3.5 ± 2.1 2.3 ± 2.4 2.8 ± 3.2 2.2 ± 2.1
Horses with top-up boli 9/10 7/10 9/10 7/10
Time to first top-up bolus (min) 7.8 ± 10.6 20.6 ± 19.1 22.8 ± 15.8 17.8 ± 10.7
Adjusted CRI (mg/kg/h) 0.071 0.064 0.067 0.063
  1. Scores are given as median (min - max). One represents the best extraction or sedation quality and 10 describes no signs of sedation and impossible cheek tooth extraction. The mean and standard deviation of required top up boli of romifidine (0.01 mg/kg bwt i.v.) for each group is also listed as well as the number of horses that needed additional sedation. Additionally the time to the first bolus application and the adjusted constant rate infusion (CRI) are mentioned
  2. Group R Romifidine only, group RB Romifidine and Butorphanol, group RM Romifidine and Midazolam, group RK Romifidine and Ketamine
  3. a= significant difference to group R