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Table 2 Ventilatory parameters of Quarter Horses walking on a water treadmill

From: Workload of horses on a water treadmill: effect of speed and water height on oxygen consumption and cardiorespiratory parameters

   Control (no water) Mid cannon Carpus Stifle
V̇O2 1.11 m/s 9.57 (6.86-11.88) 10.44 (8.09-15.96) ✝ (p = 0.005) 13.44 (10.53-15.05) *(p = 0.0002) 13.78 (11.64-14.85) * (p < 0.0001)
1.25 m/s 9.22 (7.01-10.85) 10.57 (9.96-14.55) *✝ (p = 0.002, p = 0.005) 13.35 (10.80-15.25) *(p < 0.0001) 14.60 (11.18-15.13) *(p < 0.0001)
1.39 m/s 8.93 (6.72-11.26) 10.72 (9.11-14.06) *✝ (p < 0.0001, p = 0.005) 14.73 (12.58-16.00) *(p < 0.0001) 16.70 (13.42-17.76) *(p < 0.0001)
RF 1.11 m/s 37.6 (28.3-46.6) 38.3 (30.9-61.9) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 51.9 (39.1-57.0) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 33.5 (22.6-43.3)
  1.25 m/s 41.2 (28.4-54.1) 45.0 (37.1-73.6) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 51.7 (46.1-60.5) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 35.7 (20.8-41.7)
  1.39 m/s 39.7 (28.6-52.5) 47.1 (40.9-76.1) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 49.0 (46.1-63.5) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 31.5 (21.6-42.9)
VT 1.11 m/s 3.8 (3.4-4.3) 4.2 (3.8-4.6) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 4.3 (3.8-4.7) ✝ (p < 0.0001) 5.1 (4.1-6.1) *(p < 0.0001)
  1.25 m/s 3.9 (3.3-4.3) 4.4 (3.7-5.0) *✝ (p = 0.02, p < 0.0001) 4.6 (4.3-5.1) * ✝ (p = 0.007, p < 0.0001) 5.5 (4.6-6.1) *(p < 0.0001)
  1.39 m/s 3.9 (3.4-4.2) 4.5 (3.9-4.8) ✝* (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) 5.0 (4.5-5.3) * ✝ (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) 6.0 (5.0-7.3) *(p < 0.0001)
VE 1.11 m/s 157.7 (109.5-198.8) 178.4 (125.5-289.6) ✝ (p = 0.004) 218.4 (154.7-265.7) * ✝ (p = 0.02, p < 0.0001) 169.3 (135.8-238.0)
1.25 m/s 152.1 (116.5-207.4) 193.9 (150.9-307.3) * ✝ (p = 0.001, p = 0.004) 242.2 (199.9-265.5)* ✝ (p = 0.0002, p < 0.0001) 180.4 (132.6-232.7) *(p = 0.04)
  1.39 m/s 158.3 (124.0-219.2) 200.0 (184.3-312.1) * ✝(p < 0.0001, p = 0.004) 261.6 (216.2-290.8) * ✝ (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) 210.0 (159.4-233.0) * (p = 0.003)
TE/TI 1.11 m/s 0.9 (0.8-1.1) 0.8 (0.6-1.0) 0.8 (0.8-0.9) 0.9 (0.8-1.0)
  1.25 m/s 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 0.8 (0.7-1.0) 0.8 (0.7-0.9)
  1.39 m/s 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 0.7 (0.7-0.9) 0.8 (0.6-0.9) 0.8 (0.6-0.9)
  1. Ventilatory parameters (V̇O2 = oxygen consumption in ml/(kg.min), RF = respiratory frequency in breaths/min, VT = tidal volume in L, VE = minute ventilation in L/min, TE/TI = ratio of exhalation over inhalation periods) while working on a water treadmill at three water levels (mid cannon, carpus, stifle) and speeds (1.11, 1.25, 1.39 m/s) compared to control (no water). Control values are averaged over the values collected pre- and post-water exercise each day (3 days). N = 14 (one horse’s data was unusable). Median (IQR) shown. Asterixes (*) denote values that are significantly different from control values; crosses (✝) denote values that are significantly different from stifle values