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Table 3 Hormonal-metabolic (blood concentrations of cortisol, lactate, glucose, and NEFA) and cardio-respiratory stress responses (HR, RR, MAP; mean ± SEM) in standing cows to removal of the metatarsal tourniquet used for IVRA in a hind limb (intravenous regional anaesthesia, N = 8)

From: Evaluation of intravenous regional anaesthesia and four-point nerve block efficacy in the distal hind limb of dairy cows

   Time Relative To Tourniquet Removal (Min) Statistics   (p-values)
   t-5   t10   t20     
Parameter Group Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Group Time Group*time
Cortisol IVRA 76.2 6.8 72.7 7.0 62.9 7.2 0.83 0.002 0.84
(ng/ml) NBA 72.9   71.7   61.0     
Lactate IVRA 5.71 0.94 5.02 0.85 3.52 0.61 0.82 < 0.001 0.27
(mmol/l) NBA 5.14   4.70   3.63     
Glucose IVRA 5.17 0.34 5.17 0.32 5.35 0.35 0.49 0.017 0.32
(mmol/l) NBA 5.34   5.53   5.81     
NEFA IVRA 481a 62 435 59 315 44 0.11 < 0.001 0.015
(μmol/l) NBA 297b   293   246     
HR IVRA 84 8 86 6 80 6 0.97 0.088 0.16
(1/min) NBA 95   79   76     
RR IVRA 39.5 4.1 34.8 5.2 30.0 3.2 0.34 0.007 0.71
(1/min) NBA 32.0   30.8   25.3     
MAP IVRA 168a 4 151 a 3 146 a 3 0.004 < 0.001 0.010
(mmHg) NBA 142b   142b   135b     
  1. Recordings at corresponding time points in cows after NBA in which no tourniquet was used (hindfoot nerve block anaesthesia, N = 8; t-5: 5 min before, and t10, t20: 10 and 20 min after tourniquet removal in IVRA cows and at corresponding time points in NBA cows). Significant differences (p < 0.05) between corresponding group mean values at specific time points are indicated by different superscript letters (a,b). Bold mean values indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean values within groups compared to baseline values
  2. NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, HR heart rate, RR respiratory rate, MAP mean arterial blood pressure