Skip to main content

Table 2 Hormonal-metabolic (blood concentrations of cortisol, lactate, glucose, and NEFA) and cardio-respiratory stress responses (HR, RR, MAP; mean ± SEM) to local anaesthesia in the distal hind limb (IVRA: intravenous regional anaesthesia, N = 8; NBA: hindfoot nerve block anaesthesia, N = 8; t-5: 5 min before, t2, t14, t29, t40: 2, 14, 29, and 40 min after anaesthesia)

From: Evaluation of intravenous regional anaesthesia and four-point nerve block efficacy in the distal hind limb of dairy cows

   Time Relative To Anesthesia   (Minutes)      Statistics   (p-values)
   t-5   t2   t14   t29   t40     
Parameter Group Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Group Time Group*time
Cortisol IVRA 48.7 6.6 53.5 6.9 65.4 7.0 73.3 7.0 77.4 6.3 0.90 < 0.001 0.17
(ng/ml) NBA 43.1   61.9   62.8   69.3   81.6     
Lactate IVRA 2.99 0.54 4.36 0.76 5.02 0.78 5.57 0.99 5.60 1.02 0.80 0.013 0.34
(mmol/l) NBA 3.76   4.05   4.01   4.77   5.65     
Glucose IVRA 3.81 0.14 4.01 0.11 4.06 0.16 4.48 0.25 4.84 0.30 0.66 < 0.001 0.78
(mmol/l) NBA 3.98   4.21   4.18   4.46   4.86     
NEFA IVRA 324 69 321 72 346 91 397 81 451 84 0.70 0.001 0.14
(μmol/l) NBA 308   320   308   328   358     
HR IVRA 73 6 83 7 68 6 84 8 84 7 0.53 0.019 0.44
(1/min) NBA 76   88   82   83   88     
RR IVRA 23 3 32 4 29.8 3.1 33.0 3.2 36.3 4 0.90 < 0.001 0.016
(1/min) NBA 29   29   27.8   35.3   31.8     
MAP IVRA 137 5 148 5 148 4 145 4 146 4 0.35 0.016 0.47
(mmHg) NBA 146   148   151   149   154     
  1. Bold mean values indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean values within groups compared to baseline values
  2. NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, HR heart rate, RR respiratory rate, MAP mean arterial blood pressure