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Table 1 Hormonal-metabolic (blood concentrations of cortisol, lactate, glucose, and NEFA) and cardio-respiratory stress responses (HR, RR, MAP; mean ± SEM) to lateral recumbency (LR) restraint in dairy cows (before local anaesthesia in a distal hind distal limb; IVRA: intra venous regional anaesthesia, N = 8; NBA: hindfoot nerve block anaesthesia, N = 8; t-20: 20 min before, t-5: five min before, t5: five min after restraining the cows)

From: Evaluation of intravenous regional anaesthesia and four-point nerve block efficacy in the distal hind limb of dairy cows

   Time Relative To LR   (Minutes) Statistics   (p-values)
   t-20   t-5   t5     
Parameter Group Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Group Time Group*time
Cortisol IVRA 20.7 3.0 18.0 2.2 43.2 5.2 0.19 < 0.001 0.70
(ng/ml) NBA 17.9   10.7   37.2     
Lactate IVRA 2.04 0.20 2.04 0.23 2.61 0.30 0.31 < 0.001 0.98
(mmol/l) NBA 2.34   2.36   2.93     
Glucose IVRA 3.90 0.13 3.91 0.15 3.81 0.09 0.14 0.30 0.91
(mmol/l) NBA 4.16   4.13   3.99     
NEFA IVRA 262 45 275 49 318 70 0.74 0.038 0.89
(μmol/l) NBA 231   250   298     
HR IVRA 62 4 63 5 70 6 0.12 0.002 0.54
(1/min) NBA 71   71   83     
RR IVRA 28 3 30 3 31 3 0.59 0.51 0.46
(1/min) NBA 27   30   26     
MAP IVRA 142 5 145 5 141 7 0.76 0.75 0.37
(mmHg) NBA 143   143   149     
  1. Bold mean values are significantly different (p < 0.05) from the baseline values within groups
  2. NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, HR heart rate, RR respiratory rate, MAP mean arterial blood pressure